Room 316B, Hawaii Convention Center

Tuesday, 11 August 2015

FM21.1: Observations, Advances in LED Technology, and Dark Sky Protection, 10:30 am - 12:30 pm

The search for Near Earth Objects - why dark skies are critically important

Impact of Earth by asteroids is perhaps the only natural disaster that can be prevented. If an asteroid that will impact Earth can be identified sufficiently early, it is possible to modify its orbit to eliminate the impact. As a consequence, a major effort is presently underway to identify Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may present a threat to Earth. The impact of a 20-meter diameter object near Chelyabinsk, Russia, provided a spectacular reminder of the threat that these objects present. Although no deaths were caused, injuries and a large amount of property damage were caused.

The search for NEOs is mostly funded by NASA. The principal search telescopes are the Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey, located near Tucson, Arizona. Both of these locations are seriously threatened by light pollution. A new survey, ATLAS, will commence shortly, with one telescope located on Haleakala, Maui, and the other telescope located on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (which is less threatened). Artificial light (i.e., light pollution) at these observing sites raises the sky background, and makes faint objects harder or impossible to see.

Searches for Near Earth Objects typically use very broad passbands in order to obtain the maximum amount of light. These passbands typically stretch from 400 to 820 nm. As such, they are very vulnerable to the changes in lighting that are occurring across the globe, with widespread introduction of blue-rich white lighting. It is critically important in all of these locations to limit the amount of blue light that is so readily scattered by the atmosphere.

A network of followup telescopes, spread across the planet, play a crucial role in the discovery of NEOs. After a new NEO is identified by the survey telescopes such as Pan-STARRS and Catalina, additional observations must be secured to establish its orbit, and in order to determine whether it poses a threat to Earth. The majority of these followup telescopes are at locations that are impacted by light pollution, and this seriously impacts their ability to secure additional observations.

Richard Wainscoat

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Wainscoat, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, UNITED STATES

LEDs/ALAN–Working To Be Good Neighbors [3.8 MB PDF]

ALAN (Artificial Light At Night) and LEDs have recently become major discussion topics in the areas of astronomy, light pollution, endangered species and human health to mention but a few. In years past, MH, LPS and HPS dominated night lighting with LPS and its associated narrow spectrum as the preferred source around observatories and shorelines. LEDs offer the ability to modify the spectrum, realize substantial energy savings and other associated benefits while meeting the requirements of the astronomy community.

The primary concern of the different groups relates to blue light content of the LED. For astronomers, the molecular (Raleigh) scattering related to the blue light interferes with certain portions of the spectrum used for deep space studies. The ecologists studying various endangered species find blue and green light can be related to declining leatherback turtle population in certain areas of the world. Other animals ranging from bats to moths and other insects are now being studied to determine the effect of the blue light spectrum on their behavior. The impact of blue light on the human circadian rhythm and vision, especially in the older population, is being extensively studied today.

This presentation will discuss the spectral power distribution (SPD) of various light sources, the performance of new LED solutions and how the SPD of these new LED’s can be adapted to address some of the issues raised by various constituencies. A discussion describing why some of the metrics used to describe standard lighting are not adequate for specifying the new LED solutions with the modified spectra will be included.

Today, lighting plans and implementation are all too often based on opinions and limited data. The ensuing problems and repercussions make it imperative to collect accurate and thorough information. Data collection is now ongoing using a variety of techniques analyzing the “before” and “after” lighting results from the C of HI LED streetlight conversion. The studies will focus on any quantifiable impact LEDs may have on such topics as light pollution, endangered animals, astronomy and, most importantly, the citizens of our local communities.

Robert Adams

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Adams, CW- Energy Solutions, Paradise Valley, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Light Emitting Diodes and Astronomy - a chance for restoration of the dark night sky - or for further loss

Across the planet, conventional light sources such as high pressure sodium, are rapidly being replaced by light emitting diodes (LEDs). As light fixtures are being replaced, there is a tremendous opportunity for restoration of dark night skies through replacement of poorly shielded fixtures by fully shielded fixtures. However, it is critically important to limit the amount of blue light from the LEDs.

Sales people are strongly promoting LEDs with high correlated color temperature (CCT), such as 5000K. They are promoting them on energy efficiency grounds - higher energy efficiency is easier to sell. These LEDs have tremendous amounts of blue light near 450 nm. The photopic human eye is relatively insensitive to this blue light, but the dark adapted scotopic eye is much more sensitive, and CCDs are also very sensitive to this wavelength of light. As a consequence, both professional and amateur astronomers are very seriously impacted by high CCT LED lighting. The sodium lighting that the LEDs are replacing has relatively little blue light. Blue light is strongly scattered by air molecules in the atmosphere.

Use of high CCT LED lighting will cause further deterioration of night sky quality.

In contrast, use of LED lighting with low CCT (e.g., 2400K or 2700K), or use of filters to remove the blue light, can restore the dark night sky. LED lighting is much easier to direct, meaning that an area such as a roadway can be lit with many less lumens with LEDs compared to conventional lights such as high pressure sodium. And use of fully shielded fixtures will eliminate direct uplighting.

It is therefore critically important at this time to require that all new LED lighting be fully shielded, and for strong limits to be placed the amount of blue light from LEDs. This is crucial near observatories, but is important everywhere.

Richard Wainscoat

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Wainscoat, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, UNITED STATES

Advanced Strategies for Outdoor LED Lighting Applications and Technologies to Curtail Regional Light Pollution Effects

LED lighting systems for outdoor lighting applications continue to evolve as do strategies to mitigate related effects upon regional astronomical and ecological assets. The improving availability and relative lumen-per- watt efficiencies of blue-suppressed low correlated color temperature emitters, narrow band amber, phosphor converted amber, and various combinations of broadband emitters and sub-550NM and sub-500NM filters allow for a wide palette of choices to be assessed to suit site-specific and task-specific lighting needs. In addition to static spectral content options, readily available luminaire designs also include precise geometric beam shape selections and adaptive controls to include dimming, dynamic spectral shifting, motion detection, and dynamic beam shaping to minimize total environmental lumen emissions throughout the course of the nighttime hours.

Regional and international light pollution mitigation regulations will also be briefly addressed in the context of luminaire shielding and spectral content control efforts to better protect human quality of life issues as well as astronomical and ecological interests.

The presentation will include numerous spectral content graphs for various luminaire options as well as project- specific case studies to document comparisons of legacy lighting systems versus high-performance LED systems with regard to total lumen emissions, skyglow contributions, energy efficiency, and end-user satisfaction with the installed LED lighting systems. Physical samples of various luminaires will also be available for hands-on assessments.

Christian Monrad

The new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness

I present the main steps toward the completion of the new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (WA II) and some results. The computational technique has been updated, in comparison to the first World Atlas, to take into account both sources and sites elevation. The elevation data are from USGS GTOPO30 global digital elevation model, with the same pixel size as the WA II maps. The upward emission function used to compute the Atlas is a three parameters function. The parameters can be constrained to the database of Earth based night sky brightness measurements. In this way we can use the better fitting upward function for the final map’s calibration. We maintained constant atmosphere parameters over the entire Earth, identical to those used for the first Atlas (Garstang atmospheric clarity coefficient k=1, equivalent to a vertical extinction at sea level of 0.33 magnitude in the V band). This was done in order to avoid introducing a local bias due to different conditions that may confound the light pollution propagation effects. The radiance data used are those from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) on board the Suomi NPP satellite. The use of this newly available radiance data allows for an increased real resolution, even while maintaining the same 30”x30” lat-lon pixel size. Anyway, a higher resolution is really appreciable only in the immediate proximity of sources of light pollution (e.g. inside a big city). The VIIRS DNB data used for the input data were chosen from the months ranging from May to September in order to avoid introducing bias from the variable snow coverage in mid to high northern latitudes. In the southern hemisphere this problem is far less pronounced. The WA II takes advantage of the now enormous database of Earth based sky brightness measurements obtained mainly with Sky Quality Meters, but also with CCD measurements.

Fabio Falchi

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, ISTIL - Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute, Thiene, ITALYC.C. Kyba, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, GERMANYB.A. Portnov, Department of Natural Resources & Environ-mental Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, ISRAEL

ISS images for Observatory protection

Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.

Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.

Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: A. Sánchez de Miguel, J. Zamorano, Astrofísica y CC. de la Átmosfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, SPAINA. Sánchez de Miguel, CEGEP de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, CANADA

FM21.2: Measurement of Light at Night, 2:00 pm - 3:30 pm

Derivation of sky quality indicators from photometrically calibrated all-sky image mosaics

A large database of high resolution all-sky measurements of V-band night sky brightness at sites in U.S. National Parks and astronomical observatories is utilized to describe sky quality over a wide geographic area. Mosaics of photometrically calibrated V-band imagery are processed with a semi-automated procedure to reveal the effects of artificial sky glow through graphical presentation and numeric indicators of artificial sky brightness. Comparison with simpler methods such as the use of the Unihedron SQM and naked eye limiting magnitude reveal that areas near the horizon, which are not typically captured with single-channel measurements, contribute significantly to the indicators maximum vertical illuminance, maximum sky luminance, and average all-sky luminance. Distant sources of sky glow may represent future threats to areas of the sky nearer the zenith. Timely identification and quantification of these threats may allow mitigating strategies to be implemented.

Dan Duriscoe

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: D.M. Duriscoe, C.A. Moore, Night Skies Program, U.S. National Park Service, Bishop, California, UNITED STATESC.B. Luginbuhl, Dark Sky Partners, L.L.C., Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Night sky photometry with amateur-grade digital cameras

Measurements of night sky brightness can give us valuable information on light pollution. The more the measurements we have the better is our knowledge on the spatial distribution of the pollution on local and global scale.

High accuracy professional photometry of night sky can be performed with dedicated instruments. The main drawbacks of this method are high price and low mobility. This limits an amount of observers and therefore amount of photometric data that can be collected. In order to overcome the problem of limited amount of data we can involve amateur astronomers in photometry of night sky. However, to achieve this goal we need a method that utilizes equipment which is usually used by amateur astronomers, e.g digital cameras.

We propose a method that enables good accuracy photometry of night sky with a use of digital compact or DSLR cameras. In the method reduction of observations and standarization to Johnson UBV system are performed. We tested several cameras and compared results to Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements. The overall consistency for results is within 0.2 mag.

Tomasz Mrozek

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: T. Mrozek, M. Steslicki, Solar Physics Division, Space Research Centre PAS, Wroclaw, POLANDT. Mrozek, D. Gronkiewicz, S. Kolomanski, Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, POLAND

Evaluation of the night sky quality at El Leoncito and LEO++ in Argentina

Light pollution is a growing concern at many levels, but especially for the astronomical community. Artificial lighting veil celestial objects and disturbs the measurement of night time atmospheric phenomena. This is what motivates our sky brightness measurement experiment in Argentina. Our goal was to determine the quality of two Argentinian observation sites: LEO++ and El Leoncito. Both sites were candidates to host the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). This project consists of an arrangement of many telescopes that can measure high-energy gamma ray emissions via their Cherenkov radiation produced when entering the earth's atmosphere. Even if the two argentinian sites has been excluded from the final CTA site competition, they are still of great interest for other astronomical projects. Especially the El Leoncito site which already hots the CASLEO astronomical complex. In this presentation, we describe the measurement methods used to determine the sky quality. We compared our results with different renowned astronomical sites (Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA, and Mont-Mégantic, Canada). Amongst our results, we found that LEO++ is a high quality site, however there are a lot of aerosols that can interfere with the measurements. El Leoncito shows very low sky brightness levels, which are optimal for low light level detection.

Martin Aubé

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: M. Aubé, N. Fortin, S. Turcotte, Physics, Cégep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, CANADAB. García, A. Mancilla, J. Maya, CNEA-CONICET-UNSAM, Instituto de Tecnologas en Deteccion y Astropartculas, Mendoza, ARGENTINA

Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long- term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

Sze Leung Cheung

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: S. Cheung, IAU Office for Astronomy Outreach, Mitaka, Tokyo, JAPANS. Cheung, Y. Shibata, H. Agata, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, JAPANJ.C. Pun, C. SO, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, HONG KONGC.E. Walker, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Dark Sky Meter - IYL2015 app

The Dark Sky Meter IYL 2015 edition app measures the night sky brightness using a smart phone. This presentation will provide an overview of the development and results of the app.

Tibisay Sankatsing Nava

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: P. Russo, T. Sankatsing Nava, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden, NETHERLANDS

in situ Measures of LED Installations: Results of Air and Ground Surveys

Light Emitting Diode (LED) outdoor light fixtures of different types are rapidly proliferating in many communities, particularly in the form of continuous roadway, work, and parking lot lights. These lights offer a wide range of benefits, but many in the astronomical community have expressed various concerns about their impact on local observatory facilities. We have spent several years developing complementary ground-based and aerial techniques of measuring light installations in the field. Unfortunately, large community retrofits of lighting preclude comprehensive measurement of the changes that result unless baseline data have been collected prior to completion of the new installations. Because of the rapidity of conversion to LEDs, it is increasingly difficult to conduct informative before and after surveys. As a point of interest to astronomers, we offer examples of some in situ measurements of LED installations, compare those measurements to results for older light fixtures, and discuss some of the implications for astronomy. These objective data may be helpful in reaching an informed perspective on how LED lights perform in typical settings.

Eric Craine

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: E.R. Craine, B.L. Craine, Western Research Company, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESE.R. Craine, B.L. Craine, STEM Laboratory, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

FM21.3: Radio and Optical Site Protection, 4:00 pm - 6:00 pm

Spectrum protection for radio astronomy: details, successes, failures, challenges and convergence

This talk will give an overview of the mechanisms that have evolved to provide statutory protection for radio astronomy observing, stopping along the way to note some cm-wave successes (the 21cm H I line and recent agreement not to point 9.6 GHz high-power orbiting radars at radio telescopes), defeats (the 1612 and 1720 MHz OH lines), and challenges (the near-term viablility of 68 - 90 GHz mm-wave spectrum). I’ll discuss why ground-based radio and OIR astronomy historically went their separate ways and why there is increasing motivation for convergence of spectrum protection across the various wavebands.

Harvey Liszt

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: H.S. Liszt, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, UNITED STATES

Radio Quiet Protection at the Australian Square Kilometre array site

Radio astronomy relies on the detection of very faint signals from the universe. Many radio telescopes are now detrimentally affected by radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from a wide range of active spectrum users such as communications, aviation and satellites. This is why many new radio observatories are being sited at increasingly remote locations.

The site for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders in Australia is the Murchison Radio-Astronomy Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located more than 350km from the nearest population centre and has a large radio-quiet zone that is managed under a range of legislative agreements.

In this talk I will describe the radio quiet zone, what protection it gives, how it works and how astronomers interact with the spectrum management authorities.

Lisa Harvey-Smith

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: L. Harvey-Smith, CSIRO, Epping, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA

On the Development of Radio Astronomy and Protected Astronomy Reserves in South Africa

Recent initiatives to take advantage of various geographic locations in South Africa that exhibit excellent conditions for astronomical observations (optical and radio) has resulted in the establishment of a number of world class astronomical facilities. This includes the 10m class Southern African Large Telescope, the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope (under construction), and future Square Kilometre Array.

To preserve these areas that exhibit natural astronomical advantage, unique legislation was promulgated to establish ‘astronomy reserves’. These reserves are protected through a unique set of regulations that enable protection of astronomical facilities located in declared areas from any current, and future, sources of potential interference. This paper will look at the development and implementation of a protection regime, and review some of practical implications of the construction and operation of a radio telescope in what has become to be known as a ‘radio quiet zone’.

Adrian Tiplady

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: A.J. Tiplady, SKA South Africa, Johannesburg (Rosebank), Gauteng, SOUTH AFRICA

RFI Mitigation for FAST

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

Haiyan Zhang

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: H. Zhang, R. Nan, H. Gan, Y. Yue, M. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, B. Peng, National Astronomical Observatories of CAS, Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy of CAS, Beijing, CHINA

Light pollution and site protecting of the Xinglong Station, NAOC

The Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is one of imapotant astronomical sites in China. There are 9 optical telescopes in the station, including of LAMOST, 2.16 meters and so on. Here it is introduced the change of observational conditions in the Xinglong station and the efforts to protect the site.

Yongheng Zhao

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: Y. Zhao, National Astronomical Observatories of China, Beijing, CHILE PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral

Site Protection Program and Progress Report of Ali Observatory, Tibet

The Ali observatory, Tibet, is a promising new site identified through ten year site survey over west China, and it is of significance to establish rules of site protection during site development. The site protection program is described with five aspects: site monitoring, technical support, local government support, specific organization, and public education. The long-term sky brightness monitoring is ready with site testing instruments and basic for light pollution measurement; the monitoring also includes directions of main light sources, providing periodical reports and suggestions for coordinating meetings. The technical supports with institutes and manufacturers help to publish lighting standards and replace light fixtures; the research pays special attention to the blue-rich sources, which impact the important application of high altitude sites. An official leading group towards development and protection of astronomical resources has been established by Ali government; one of its tasks is to issue regulations against light pollution, including special restrictions of airport, mine, and winter heating, and to supervise lighting inspection and rectification. A site protection office under the official group and local astronomical society are organized by Ali observatory; the office can coordinate in government levels and promote related activities. A specific website operated by the protection office releases activity propaganda, evaluation results, and technical comparison with other observatories. Both the site protection office and Ali observatory take responsibility for public education, including popular science lectures, light pollution and energy conservation education. Ali Night Sky Park has been constructed and opens in 2014, and provides a popular place and observational experience. The establishment of Ali Observatory and Night Sky Park brings unexpected social influence, and the starry sky trip to Ali becomes a new format of culture- oriented travels in China. The related news reports and network propaganda have drawn attention of national top leadership, instructing to further investigate national support policies.

Yongqiang Yao

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: Y. Yao, Y. Zhou, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, CHINAY. Yao, Y. Zhou, Ali Observatory, Tibet, CHINAX. Wang, International Dark-Sky Association Beijing & Starry Sky Project of China, Beijing, CHINAJ. He, Ali Prefectural Administrative Office, Tibet, CHINAS. Zhou, Ali Tourist Administration, Tibet, CHINA

County of Hawaii - A Unique LED Street Light Conversion

In 2010 the County of Hawaii was paying $0.40/kW-Hr for electricity, $1.5 mil annual bill for 8,500 street lights. Over the past 20 years costs have increased on an average of 7% per year. Inventory maintenance frequency for the 8,500 lights was 35%, which meant 3,000 visits per year. The current LPS street lights were nearing 20 years of service and a complete replacement was imminent, a significant cost for the County of Hawaii and its 185,000 citizens.

The astronomy community impact was identified early on and discussions conducted for an acceptable conversion path. Key concerns centered on the blue light content of the LED and reflected light.

A demo project with Federal ARRA funds installed 1,000 LED full cut off fixtures achieving an energy savings of $200K annually. The results were extremely successful and were loudly applauded by both the general public and the Astronomy Institute. Hence, the Traffic Division recommended to the County administration changing the remaining lights, now numbering 9,000, to new LED lights. The County administration approved the change to the LED lights and an upgrade to the outdoor lighting ordinance.

The remainder of the conversion, amounting to $6 million for materials and labor, is expected to yield an energy savings of approximately $800K annually with a 5 year recovery of costs that includes both energy savings and maintenance reduction.

Additional benefits achieved from using full cutoff fixtures include reduction in glare for drivers, pedestrians, and elimination of trespass light onto neighboring residences.

Benefits achieved by using a filtered LED includes reducing blue light to <1 %, diffusing the harshness of the direct LED light and the ability to use the most energy efficient lumen producing fixture to achieve in excess of 63% reduction in energy costs.

Additional aspects of this conversion presentation will include steps to gather quantitative data showing reduction in light pollution, aerial and satellite surveys for gathering before and after ground level brightness plots along the roadways, and interpretive spectral analysis on skyward impacts.

Ronald Thiel

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R.L. Thiel, Public Works, County of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii, UNITED STATES PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral

Checking the light pollution sources at Asiago Astrophysical Observatory from photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results from a unique experiment

We present the results of recent sky brightness measurements at Asiago Observatory with the goal to understand the sources and the propagation of the light pollution.

There are actually two main models for the light pollution: one is based on a dominant Lambert diffusion. A recent model, instead, includes a “cavity” effect in the urban centers, limiting the low angles horizontal propagation. The effects of the local vs. distant light centers on the brightness of the light sky at the observatories are different in the two models and the regulations required to limit the light pollution are different.

A unique experiment was carried out at Asiago Observatory in order to clarify this ambiguity turning off more than 5000 public street lamps in a 500 square km area around the telescopes, in a clear, moonless night. We also investigated the sources of the emission lines in the spectra and their evolution.

Sergio Ortolani

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: S. Ortolani, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padova, Padova, ITALYS. Ortolani, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Padova, ITALYA. Bertolo, Dipartimento di Padova, ARPA Veneto, Padova, ITALY

Wednesday, 12 August 2015

FM2.4: Joint FM 2 & FM 21: World Heritage and the Protection of Working Observatory Sites, 10:30 am - 12:30 pm

The AURA Observatory in Chile – part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study.

This talk discusses the Extended Case Study for AURA-O as a “Window to the Universe”


That study was prepared in the context of supporting the desire to preserve humanity’s scientific/cultural heritage of outstanding, high-mountain, ground-based, observatory sites developed over the period 1870-2000. AURA-O includes the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), established in 1962 as the first of the major international observatories to be installed in Chile. The future of AURA-O now includes the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

This Extended Case Study has provided the context for the development of possible initiatives to protect a variety of sites in Chile for their historical and scientific value to humanity. The dark skies and ideal weather patterns of northern Chile, along with its location in the southern hemisphere, have made this area of the world a major centre for astronomical facilities.

While this talk will touch on the importance of dark skies as part of the Windows to the Universe concept, it is anticipated that others will be discussing (in FM2 and/or FM21) the current status and future plans (of the Chilean Government and the observatories) for protecting the dark skies of northern Chile.

Malcolm Smith

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: M.G. Smith, R.C. Smith, CTIO, AURA, Tucson, CHILE|P. Sanhueza, OPCC, La Serena, CHILE

How government can support protection of “dark skies” as a public policy: the experience of Chile

For more than fifty years Chile has been the host of world-leading optical and radio astronomical observatories because of the exceptional atmospheric conditions and the existence of isolated areas in the northern desert regions. As of today, Chile, through agreements with foreign governments and international research institutions around the world concentrates almost 30% of the total radio and optical observation capabilities of the planet, scattered in different sites. With the new projects already planned or in construction, the country will be the host of almost 70% of the total world-wide observational facilities by 2021-2022.

Since the beginning of the astronomical research activities in Chile, the government has played an increasing role in attracting and facilitating the installation of these projects. The presentation shows how the relationship between the government and international consortia has evolved with special reference to designing policies to protect “dark skies” and to manage the relationship between the observations sites, the local productive activities to be developed in the same areas, mainly mining and energy, and the relationship with local communities and aboriginal populations and traditions. Special reference will be made to recent initiatives connected with World Heritage program of UNESCO, new laws and regulations and public awareness and education.

Gabriel Rodriguez

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: G. Rodriguez, Energy, Science & Technology and Innovation Direction, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile, Santiago, Region Metropolitana, CHILE

Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.

While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

R. Smith

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R.C. Smith, AURA Observatory in Chile, La Serena, CHILEM.G. Smith, CTIO, AURA, La Serena, CHILEP. Sanhueza, OPCC, La Serena, CHILE

Highlights of the new Emission Norm for the Regulation of Light Pollution in Northern Chile

Due to the need to deal with the new menace of LEDS, which are very blue emitters, and to address other shortcomings regarding scattering and over illumination of the first lighting regulations passed in Chile in 1998 (DS 686/1998), the Chilean Ministry of Environment (MMA) approved new regulations by Presidential decree (DS 043/2012) on May 03, 2013. This new version of the regulations was developed by OPCC in collaboration with the MMA.

This new environmental standard includes the following main restrictions: A full-cut-off requirement for general lighting, which means 0.49cd/Klumen at 90o (i.e., no light distribution above horizontal).

For sport and recreational activities, an allowed level of 10cd/Klumen at 90o, together with a visor to cut upper- hemisphere emissions.

Spectral restrictions divided into three regulated regions of the visible spectrum (as compared to the total light emission between 380 and 780nm): (a) not more than 15% of total light output in the range 300 to 380nm; (b) not more than 15% in the range 380 to 499nm; and (c) not more than 50% in the range 781nm to 1micron.

Over illumination restricted to not more than 20% over the Chilean standard (NSEG 9 n71) for minimal levels in public lighting. 2 Billboards with inner sources of illuminations (LED or plasma big screens) must emit no more than 50cd/m No spectral restriction is applied.

This new lighting regulation has not come into force yet, due to a delay in approving complementary technical protocols. Enforcement is also a critical issue to deal with, given that the institutional environmental framework in Chile is being modified.

The OPCC is working with both the Ministry of Public Works and also Ministry of Housing, seeking to go beyond the new lighting regulation by applying a more restrictive approach in terms of spectral restriction, promoting the use of warm white LEDS with a CCT of 2.700 Ko and, in the case of outdoor illumination near professional observatories, monochromatic amber LEDS.

Pedro Sanhueza


Toward a Serial International Approach of the High Mountain Observatories, within important Dark Sky Value

Practical approach of Dark Sky places as possible WH sites leads some of us to underline the exceptional role of high mountain observatories as “Windows to the Universe” for the Human being. Till today, such places keep very important dark sky properties and consequently important astronomical functions. We have to take count that quality of the sky at a given place and dark sky conservation policy is something very important, but not enough by itself to justify inscription on the WH List. It must be related to important cultural or/and natural value. That means presence of significant heritage features in the field of astronomy and science for listing as WH cultural property, or with other natural attributes of exceptional significance to be listed as WH natural property. Case of both natural and cultural WH high value place is also possible as “mixt WH site”.

The Dark Sky place must also meet to a sufficient integrity/authenticity degree for the today tangible heritage of astronomy and to a very significant contribution to the international history of science and astronomy as intangible attribute of the place. That point must be demonstrated by a serious comparative analysis with similar places in the world and in the region. In case of serial nomination as examined there, each individual site must contribute significantly to the Outstanding Universal Value of the global series.

First, we intend to give a short account of the today trend for a possible serial nomination of the most significant high mountain observatory keeping important heritage of their major periods for the sky observation (Western Europe, Chile, North America, etc.).

Second, communication will present a case study with Pic du Midi in French Pyrenees, coming from the early origin of mountain scientific stations and observatories (end of 19th C) in Europe, with a long, continuous and important astronomical and scientific history till today with active programs of sky and atmosphere observations.

Michel Cotte

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: M. Cotte, World Heritage Unit, ICOMOS, Tournon, FRANCE|M. Cotte, CFV History of science and technology, University of Nantes, Nantes, FRANCE

Protection of Hawaii’s observatories from light pollution and radio frequency interference

The island of Hawaii is home to Maunakea Observatory, the largest collection of optical and infrared telescopes in the world. Haleakala Observatory on Maui is also an excellent observing site, and is home to the Pan- STARRS telescopes, the Faulkes Telescope North, solar telescopes, and military telescopes.

The dark night sky over Maunakea has been well protected by a strong lighting ordinance, and remains very dark. The National Park Service night sky team recently visited Maunakea, and found it to have a darker night sky than any of the US National Parks that they have visited.

Haleakala is more threatened, because Maui has a weaker lighting ordinance, and it is a smaller island, meaning that people live and work closer to the telescopes. Haleakala is also closer to Honolulu, and the urban glow from Honolulu contributes to an artificially bright sky in the northwest direction. Although there is no astronomical research done on the island of Kauai, it has some of the best lighting in the world, because endangered birds on Kauai become confused and disoriented by unshielded lights.

The county and state lighting regulations will be described in detail. Enforcement issues will also be discussed.

The efforts that have been made to protect Maunakea observatory from radio frequency interference, and to reduce radio frequency interference on Haleakala will also be described.

Richard Wainscoat

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Wainscoat, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, UNITED STATES

A Tale of Two Regions: Site Protection Experience and Updated Regulations in Arizona and the Canary Islands

Some of the world’s largest telescopes and largest concentrations of telescopes are on sites in Arizona and the Canary Islands. Active site protection efforts are underway in both regions; the common challenge is getting out ahead of the LED revolution in outdoor lighting. We review the work with local, regional, and national government bodies, with many successful updates of outdoor lighting codes. A successful statewide conference was held in Arizona to raise awareness of public officials about issues of light pollution for astronomy, safety, wildlife, and public health. We also highlight interactions with key entities near critical sites, including mines and prisons, leading to upgrades of their lighting to more astronomy-friendly form. We describe ongoing and planned sky monitoring efforts, noting their importance in quantifying the “impact on astronomy” increasingly requested by regulators.

Richard Green

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R.F. Green, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESL. Allen, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESE. Alvarez del Castillo, AdC Consultants, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESJ. Diaz Castro, Oficina Tecnica para la Protección de la Calidad del Cielo, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife, SPAINC.J. Corbally, P. Gabor, Vatican Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESD. Davis, Planetary Sciences Institute, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESE. Falco, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Amado, Arizona, UNITED STATESJ.C. Hall, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, UNITED STATESC.K. Monrad, Monrad Engineering, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESG. Williams, MMT Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Protection of SAAO observing site against light and dust pollution

South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing station near Sutherland, Northern Cape, is one of the darkest sites for optical and IR astronomy in the world. The SAAO hosts and operates several optical and IR telescopes, including the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and a number of international robotic telescopes, most of which were attracted by the good night sky conditions for optical astronomy at SAAO. To ensure that the conditions remain optimal for astronomy and our night skies are protected against light and dust pollution, a legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act, of 2007, was enacted. The Act empowers the South African minister of Science and Technology to regulate things that could pose a threat to both radio and/or optical astronomy in areas that are declared Astronomy Advantage Areas (or AAAs) in South Africa. For optical astronomy, the main challenges are those that are likely to be posed by light and dust pollution as result of wind energy developments, and petroleum gas and oil exploration and exploitation in the area. We give an update and current status of possible threats to the quality of the night skies at SAAO and the challenges relating to the AGA Act implementation and enforcement. We discuss measures that are put in place to protect the Observatory, including relevant studies using a planned wind energy facility to quantify the severity of the threats posed by light pollution from these and similar facilities.

Ramotholo Sefako

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Sefako, P. Vaisanen, South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, SOUTH AFRICA

FM21.5: Light at Night and Protected Areas, 2:00 pm - 3:30 pm

The Ecological Implications of Light at Night (LAN)

Summary: Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.

Introduction: A casual glance at NASA images of the Earth at night reveals the lights of thousands of cities. The larger cities will contain millions of street lights, along with commercial, sports and decorative lighting. Most of these lights are on all night, every night, three hundred and sixty-five nights a year, (fig 1), so they must be having a measurable ecological and environmental effect. The most obvious effect of all this excessive lighting is the light pollution suffered by astronomers.

Colin Henshaw

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C. Henshaw, Health Studies and Training Centre, North West Armed Forces Prince Salman Hospital, Tabuk, SAUDI ARABIA

Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

Eric Craine

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: E.R. Craine, B.L. Craine, Western Research Company, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESE.R. Craine, B.L. Craine, STEM Laboratory, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Stars For Citizens With Urban Star Parks and Lighting Specialists

General context
One hundred years ago, almost nobody imagine a life without stars every night even in the urban areas. Now, to see a starry sky is a special event for urban citizens.

It is possible to see the stars even inside cities? Yes, but for that we need star parks and lighting specialists as partners.

Educational aspect
The citizens must be able to identify the planets, constellations and other celestial objects in their urban residence. This is part of a basic education. The number of the people living in the urban area who never see the main constellations or important stars increase every year. We must do something for our urban community.

What is an urban star park?
An urban public park where we can see the main constellations can be considered an urban star park. There can be organized a lot of activities as practical lessons of astronomy, star parties, etc.

Classification of the urban star parks
A proposal for classification of the urban star parks taking in consideration the quality of the sky and the number of the city inhabitants: Two categories:

  • city star parks for cities with < 100.000 inhabitants
  • metropolis star parks for cities with > 100.000 inhabitants

Five levels of quality:

  • 1* level = can see stars of at least 1 magnitude with the naked eyes
  • 2* level = at least 2 mag
  • 3* level = at least 3 mag
  • 4* level= at least 4 mag
  • 5* level = at least 5 mag

The urban star urban park structure and lighting system
A possible structure of a urban star park and sky-friend lighting including non-electric illumination are descripted.

The International Commission on Illumination
A description of this structure which has as members national commissions from all over the world.

Dark-sky activists - lighting specialists
National Commissions on Illumination organize courses of lighting specialist. Dark-sky activists can become lighting specialists. The author shows his experience in this aspect as a recent lighting specialist and his cooperation with the Romanian National Commission on Illumination working for a law of illumination in Romania and to implement the sky protection elements into the lighting specialist accreditation.

Valentin Grigore

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: V. Grigore, The Romanian Society for Meteors and Astronomy, Targoviste, Dambovita, ROMANIA

The New Progress of the Starry Sky Project of China

Since the 28th General Assembly of IAU, the SSPC team made new progress:

  1. Enhanced the function of the SSPC team
    • Established the contact with IAU C50, IUCN Dark Skies Advisory Group, AWB and IDA,and undertakes the work of the IDA Beijing Chapter.
    • Got supports from China’s National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing Planetarium, and Shanghai Science and Technology Museum.
    • Signed cooperation agreements with Lighting Research Center, English Education Group and law Firm; formed the team force.
  2. Put forward a proposal to national top institution The SSPC submitted the first proposal about dark sky protection to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.
  3. Introduced the Criteria and Guideline of dark sky protection The SSPC team translated 8 documents of IDA, and provided a reference basis for Chinese dark sky protection.
  4. Actively establish dark sky places
    • Plan a Dark Sky Reserve around Ali astronomical observatory (5,100m elevation) in Tibet. China’s Xinhua News Agency released the news.
    • Combining with Hangcuo Lake, a National Natural Reserve and Scenic in Tibet, to plan and establish the Dark Sky Park.
    • Cooperated with Shandong Longgang Tourism Group to construct the Dream Sky Theme Park in the suburbs of Jinan city.

In the IYL 2015, the SSPC is getting further development: First, make dark sky protection enter National Ecological Strategy of “Beautiful China”. We call on: “Beautiful China” needs “Beautiful Night Sky”; China should care the shared starry sky, and left this resource and heritage for children. Second, hold “Cosmic Light” exhibition in Shanghai Science and Technology Museum on August.

Third, continue to establish Dark Sky Reserve, Park and Theme Park. We want to make these places become the bases of dark sky protection, astronomical education and ecological tourism, and develop into new cultural industry. Fourth, actively join international cooperation.

Now, “Blue Sky, White Cloud and Starry Sky “have become the common pursuit of Chinese society. In order to obtain this goal, the SSPC team would like to pay more efforts.

Xiaohua Wang

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: X. Wang, Starry Sky Project of China, International Dark Sky Association Beijing Chapter, Beijing, CHINA

Measuring light pollution in Beijing and effects on Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory

A light pollution survey in Beijing has been carried on to assess the quality of the night sky. To measure the absolute luminance of night sky directly, a portable night-sky luminance meter was developed specially for this survey. With a 2-degree field of view, the meter is sensitive only to a narrow cone of the sky and capable of detecting the minimum luminance of 10-6 cd/m2 (equivalent to 27.4 mag/arcsec2). The night-sky brightness was measured at seven sites, of which six are almost in line but with different distances from the city center. The Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory was included to study the impacts of city lightings on an astronomical observatory. The survey shows that night skies at later time (from 0:00 to 3:00) keep mostly unchanged and are evidently darker than earlier time (e.g. the night-sky at 23:00 is about 40% brighter than midnight), which can be attributed to substantial artificial lightings for human activities being turned off after midnight. Moreover, zenith luminance of the night sky decreases with increasing distance from the city center. Compared with the night-sky luminance (21.50 mag/arcsec2) at Lingshan observation site which is closer to the city center, the night-sky brightness at Xinglong Station is a litter brighter (21.37 mag/arcsec2). This indicates that night sky at Xinglong Station has been brightened by outdoor lighting of the county town of Xinglong. The survey shows that either the luminance of zenith dark sky or the average luminance of skies at 45 degree altitude in all directions could be considered as a reasonable indicator of light pollution.

Ligen LU

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: L. LU, B. ZHANG, S. ZENG, Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, CHINAM. AI, Liaoning Province Institute of Metrology, Shenyang, CHINAJ. LIU, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, CHINA

Light pollution modelling the UK Highways Agency new environmental policy, inc. astronomical impact of blue- rich LED luminaires.

The Highways Agency are replacing their policy of full cut off class G6 road lighting specification on motorways (originally based on the author’s work), and are adopting a categorised environmental impact based point system that can accommodate technical advances, such as LED lighting. The Skyglow component of this will be based on the modelling of skyglow versus cut-off angle, developed for determining the relative light pollution environmental impact of different streetlight designs, by the author. Further modelling has been done concerning the effect of LED lighting, which potentially, has highly directional properties. But increasingly used blue rich colour temperatures may increase skyglow by 5 fold, compared to traditional lighting. This is due to enhanced reflection of vegetation and greatly increased atmospheric molecular Rayleigh scattering; a potential astronomical environmental disaster.

Prior to this, the author carried out a dark sky survey of the Malvern Hills area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB), relating it to the same light pollution model. The results confirm the general predictions of the model and also clearly illustrate the relative significance of different designs of light sources at different distances, to the dark sky environment.

The paper also briefly describes the results from the same model adapted to study the night-time environmental impact of a proposed very large sea based wind farm project in the English Channel, as a part of the planning process.

Christopher Baddiley

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C.J. Baddiley, None, Retired physisicst, BAA Campaign for Dark skies, Mathon (Nr. Malvern), UNITED KINGDOM

FM2.6: Joint FM 2 & FM 21: Preserving Dark Skies and Protecting Against Light Pollution in a World Heritage Framework, 4:00 pm - 6:00 pm

Nightscape Photography Reclaims the Natural Sky

Nightscape photos and timelapse videos, where the Earth & sky are framed together with an astronomical purpose, support the dark skies activities by improving public awareness. TWAN or The World at Night program (www.twanight.org) presents the world’s best collection of such landscape astrophotos and aims to introduce the night sky as a part of nature, an essential element of our living environment besides being the astronomers lab. The nightscape images also present views of our civilizations landmarks, both natural and historic sites, against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. In this context TWAN is a bridge between art, science and culture.

TWAN images contribute to programs such as the Dark Sky Parks by the International Dark Sky Association or Starlight reserves by assisting local efforts in better illustrating their dark skies and by producing stunning images that not only educate the local people on their night sky heritage also communicate with the governments that are responsible to support the dark sky area.

Since 2009 TWAN organizes the world’s largest annual photo contest on nightscape imaging, in collaboration with the Dark Skies Awareness, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and Astronomers Without Borders. The International Earth & Sky Photo Contest promotes the photography that documents the beauty of natural skies against the problem of light pollution. In 2014 the entries received from about 50 countries and the contest result news was widely published in the most popular sources internationally.

*Babak A. Tafreshi is a photographer and science communicator. He is the creator of The World At Night program, and a contributing photographer to the National Geographic, Sky&Telescope magazine, and the European Southern Observatory. http://twanight.org/tafreshi

Babak Tafreshi

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: B. Tafreshi, The World at Night (TWAN), Waltham, Massachusetts, UNITED STATES

How to apply UNESCO World Heritage Criteria to the “Windows to the Universe” Sites?

The following communication proposes a methodic approach trying to link concept of “Windows to the Universe” to the uses of “Criteria” as defined by the World Heritage Convention (1972). The first issue is well advanced today by more than 10 years of active studies and preservation projects like “Starlight Reserves” by specialists of astronomy, archaeo-astronomy and environmental sciences. The second issue is related to a UNESCO Convention ruled by the WH Committee and leading to recognize around 1000 World Heritage sites over 40 years. The official booklet Guideline for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention (last edition 2013) summarizes conceptual ideas and methodological recommendations for WH nominations. In ongoing context the WH Committee’s decisions rely on scientific and professional evaluation of each site by UNESCO’s advisory bodies: ICOMOS for cultural heritage and IUCN for natural heritages.

The first goal is to establish appropriate understanding of a very specific conceptual approach (Windows to the Universe) in the context of a very large UN Convention (WH List) related both to cultural and natural heritage in general. The second goal is to give a readable understanding of the WH requirements coming from the strict evaluation of the “Outstanding Universal Value” (OUV) of a given place, including the choice of WH Criteria expressing OUV in respect of the Guideline Format.

Furthermore and due to concepts coming from two very different fields, the communication aims to present a practical methodology in the view of a possible WH nomination: how to understand relationships between different classes of value and how to establish demonstration of the OUV and to justify the choice of Criteria for the place? Beyond possible WH projects, in a obvious limited number, the communication tries to propose an efficient and general methodology for valuable assessment and understanding of places having a “Windows to the Universe” facet.

Michel Cotte

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: M. Cotte, World Heritage Unit, ICOMOS, Tournon, FRANCE|M. Cotte, Centre François Viète d’histoire des sciences et des techniques, University of Nantes, Nantes, FRANCE

The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and light pollution issues in New Zealand

I will discuss the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve, recognized by IDA in 2012, and how the reserve is managed and promoted to the public to make them aware of light pollution issues and in order to promote star-gazing and astro-tourism. AMIDSR is the world’s largest Dark Sky Reserve recognized by IDA and has gold tier status. We will have a Starlight festival in October to promote the Reserve to the public.

John Hearnshaw

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J. Hearnshaw, Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND

Night Sky preservation and restoration in U.S. National Parks

The U.S. National Park Service (NPS) Night Skies Program contributes to the recognition of certain outstanding NPS lands as dark sky places. A combination of efforts including measuring resource condition, within- park outdoor lighting control, education outreach for visitors, and engagement with surrounding communities helps establish and maintain such places. In certain circumstances, communities and protected areas join forces in a cooperative effort to preserve the natural nocturnal environment of a region. One recent example, the Colorado Plateau Dark Sky Cooperative, is taking lighting, conservation, and educational steps to fulfill the mission of the NPS Call To Action- Starry Starry Night. This voluntary initiative forms America’s first Dark Sky Cooperative, and links communities, tribes, businesses, state/federal agencies, and citizens in a collaborative effort to celebrate the view of the cosmos, minimize the impact of outdoor lighting, and ultimately restore natural darkness to the area. We[AN1] present progress and accomplishments of established dark sky parks and reserves in the western U.S., with particular emphasis on public response to the actions taken and the results achieved.

Dan Duriscoe

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: D.M. Duriscoe, N. Ament, Night Skies Program, U.S. National Park Service, Bishop, California, UNITED STATES

Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart

The large number of UNESCO Sites around the world, in outstanding sites ranging from small islands to cities, makes it possible to build and share a comprehensive knowledge base on good practices and policies on the preservation of the night skies consistent with the protection of the associated scientific, natural and cultural values. In this context, the Starlight Initiative and other organizations such as IDA play a catalytic role in an essential international process to promote comprehensive, holistic approaches on dark sky preservation, astronomical observation, environmental protection, responsible lighting, sustainable energy, climate change and global sustainability.

Many of these places have the potential to become models of excellence to foster the recovery of the dark skies and its defence against light pollution, included some case studies mentioned in the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy. Fighting light pollution and recovering starry sky are already elements of a new emerging culture in biosphere reserves and world heritage sites committed to acting on climate change and sustainable development. Over thirty territories, including biosphere reserves and world heritage sites, have been developed successful initiatives to ensure night sky quality and promote sustainable lighting. Clear night skies also provide sustainable income opportunities as tourists and visitors are eagerly looking for sites with impressive night skies.

Taking into account the high visibility and the ability of UNESCO sites to replicate network experiences, the Starlight Initiative has launched an action In cooperation with Biosphere Smart, aimed at promoting the Benchmark sites. Biosphere Smart is a global observatory created in partnership with UNESCO MaB Programme to share good practices, and experiences among UNESCO sites. The Benchmark sites window allows access to all the information of the most relevant astronomical heritage sites, dark sky protected areas and other places committed to the preservation of the values associated with the night sky. A new step ahead in our common task of protecting the starry skies at UNESCO sites.

Cipriano Marin

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C. Marin, Starlight Initiative / UNESCO Center Canary Islands, Santa cruz de tenerife, Canary Islands, SPAIN

Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called “light pollution” and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible. In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called “dark sky parks” were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.

History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro- tourism project “Astro Izery” that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail “Solar System Model”, and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days “Astronomy Workshop for Schools”, where teachers and astronomers from Astronomical Institute (University of Wroclaw) educate the young generations in the field of astronomy and other physical sciences.

Arkadiusz Berlicki

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: A. Berlicki, S. Kolomanski, T. Mrozek, Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, POLANDG. Zakowicz, High School No. 13, Wroclaw, POLANDA. Berlicki, Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondrejov, CZECH REPUBLIC

Thursday, 13 August 2015

FM21.7: Education Programs Promoting Light Pollution Awareness and IYL2015, 8:30 am - 10:00 am

Network for Light Pollution education at secondary level

Light pollution (LP) is one form of environmental pollution less known than most others. It affects the visibility of the night sky, but also alters the balance of the ecosystem and affects human health, since it breaches the biological clocks that are coordinated with periods of light and darkness. To be alert on this subject, learn to recognize the problem, warn others of the consequences, and find solutions, are objectives of the present work.

The LP as subject of study can be also a good point to teach and learn about the uses of light in general, including the problem to rich the starry night from the schoolyard.

The Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE), proposes a set of simple, non expensive and funny activities, especially designed no only to understand the three types of light pollution: glow, intrusion and glare, but also to explain the problems associated to the over- consumption, to show why the public light produces strong and bad effects on the astronomical observation, including the radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and affects the human health. NASE workshop on this subject is devoted to the Natural Sciences teachers and professors and for this reason the activity cross over all the secondary school level spaces.

More details in: http://www.naseprogram.org

Beatriz García

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: B. García, ITeDA - UTN FRM, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, ARGENTINAR.M. Ros, Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, SPAIN

Astronomy Education Under Dark Skies

We have been providing professional support for the high school students and the astronomy teachers since 2007. Our efforts include organizing astronomy events that take from several hours, like, e.g., watching the transit of Venus, to several days, like the workshops organized in the framework of the projects ‘School Workshops on Astronomy’ (SWA) and ‘Wygasz’.

The SWA and Wygasz workshops include presentations by experts in astronomy and space science research, presentations prepared by students being supervised by those experts, hands-on interactive experience in the amateur astrophotography, various pencil-and-paper exercises, and other practical activities. We pay particular attention to familiarize the teachers and students with the idea and the necessity of protecting the dark sky. The format of these events allows also for some time for teachers to share ideas and best practices in teaching astronomy.

All those activities are organized either in the Izera Dark-Sky Park in Poland or in other carefuly selected locations in which the beauty of the dark night sky can be appreciated.

Joanna Molenda-Zakowicz

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J.C. Molenda-Zakowicz, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, POLAND

Dark Skies Rangers

Creating awareness about the importance of the protection of our dark skies is the main goal of the Dark Skies Rangers project, a joint effort from the NOAO and the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Hundreds of schools and thousands of students have been reached by this program. We will focus in particular on the experience being developed in Portugal where several municipalities have now received street light auditing produced by students with suggestions on how to enhance the energy efficiency of illumination of specific urban areas. In the International Year of Light we are investing our efforts in exporting the successful Portuguese experience to other countries. The recipe is simple: train teachers, engage students, foster the participation of local community and involve local authorities in the process. In this symposium we hope to draft the cookbook for the near future.

Rosa Doran

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Doran, Executive Council, NUCLIO - Nucleo Interativo de Astronomia, Sao Domingos de Rana, PORTUGAL

The International year of light 2015 and the “Cosmic light” message: awareness & dissemination in the UK

By proclaiming the IYL2015, the United Nations recognizes the importance of light and light based technology in the lives of the citizens of the world and for the development of global society on many levels. Light and application of light science and technology are vital for existing and future advances in many scientific areas (from medicine to information & communication technology) and culture. Light is a key element in Astronomy: as astronomers, it is what we study and makes our science possible, but it is also what threatens our observations when it is set-off from the ground (light pollution). This year represents a magnificent and unique opportunity for the global Astronomical community to disseminate these messages and raise the awareness of the importance and preservation of dark skies for heritage and the natural environment. Global and National initiatives are taking place during the year of 2015 (and beyond) and in my talk I will give an overview of what, as IYL National Committee and Gold Sponsor of the year, we are carrying out in the UK. I will explain how we developed our National Programme and I will discuss how we can build-up a long-lasting “cosmic light” communication strategy exploiting the lesson learnt while carrying out our IYL UK year plan.

Lucia Marchetti

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: L. Marchetti, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, London, UNITED KINGDOM

Cosmic Light EDU kit

In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

Rosa Doran

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R. Doran, Executive Council, NUCLIO - Nucleo Interativo de Astronomia, Sao Domingos de Rana, PORTUGAL

The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit: Educating the Public about the Dark Side of IYL2015

The UN-sanctioned International Year of Light in 2015 (IYL2015) is providing an opportunity to increase public awareness of dark skies preservation, quality lighting and energy conservation. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) group at the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) has received a grant through the IAU to produce official “Quality Lighting Teaching Kits” for the IYL2015 cornerstone theme, “Cosmic Light”. These kits will emphasize the use of proper optical design in achieving quality lighting that promotes both energy efficiency and energy conservation of an endangered natural resource: our dark skies. Poor quality lighting not only impedes astronomy research, but creates safety issues, affects human circadian sensitivities, disrupts ecosystems, and wastes billions of dollars/year in energy consumption and carbon emissions.

The concepts and practices of “quality lighting” will be explored through problem-based learning (e.g., engineering design), hands-on/minds-on activities, demonstrations, and formative and summative assessment probes. The impact of the kits will be amplified by providing professional development using tutorial videos created at NOAO and conducting question and answer sessions via Google+ Hangouts for program participants. The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit will leverage ten years of work by NOAO’s EPO team in developing programs on lighting and optics education (e.g., the NSF-funded “Hands on Optics”, IAU “Dark Skies Africa” and Arizona Public Service Foundation’s “Dark Skies Yuma” programs).

NOAO’s partners are the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), International Commission on Illumination (CIE), International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), and IAU Office of Astronomy for Development, with sponsorship from the IAU and The Optical Society (OSA). Along with astronomy education centers (NUCLIO and Universe Awareness), the networks will disseminate kits to formal and informal audiences worldwide. The impact sought is a change in knowledge, attitude, and behavior in each community by learning how to light responsibly, improving the quality of life in “illuminating” ways.

Constance Walker

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C.E. Walker, S.M. Pompea, R. Levy, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

FM21.8: Challenges and Solutions to Light Pollution, RFI and Implementing IAU Resolution 2009 B5, 10:30 am - 12:30 pm

Our Pittsburgh Constellation

Riding on the Pittsburgh mayor’s keen interest in astronomy and the ongoing change of 40,000 city lights from mercury and sodium vapor to shielded LEDs, we organized a series of city-wide celestial art projects to bring attention to the skies over Pittsburgh. Light pollution public talks were held at the University of Pittsburgh’s Allegheny Observatory and other colleges. Earth Hour celebrations kicked off an intensive year of astronomy outreach in the city. Lights went out on March 28, 2015 from 8:30 to 9:30 pm in over fifty buildings downtown and in Oakland (the “Eds and Meds” center, where many Pittsburgh universities and hospitals are located). Our art contest was announced at the De-Light Pittsburgh celebration at the Carnegie Science Center during Astronomy Weekend. “Our Pittsburgh Constellation” is an interactive Google map of all things astronomical in the city. Different colored stars mark locations of planetariums, star parties, classes, observatories, lecture series, museums, telescope manufacturers and participating art galleries. Contest entrants submitted artwork depicting their vision of the constellation figure that incorporates and connects all the “stars” in our custom city map. Throughout the year, over a dozen artists ran workshops on painting star clusters, galaxies, nebulae, comets, planets and aurorae with discussions of light pollution solutions and scientific explanations of what the patrons were painting, including demonstrations with emission tubes and diffraction grating glasses. We will display the celestial art created in this International Year of Light at an art gallery as part of the City’s Department of Innovation & Performance March 2016 Earth Hour gala. We are thankful for the Astronomical Footprint grant from the Heinz Endowments, which allowed us to bring the worlds of science and art together to enact social change.

Diane Turnshek

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: D. Turnshek, Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, UNITED STATES

Globe at Night: From IYA2009 to the International Year of Light 2015 and Beyond

Citizen-science is a rewardingly inclusive way to bring awareness to the public on important issues like the disappearing starry night sky, its cause and solutions. Citizen-science can also provide meaningful, hands-on “science process” experiences for students. One program that does both is Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org), an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations via a “web app” on any smart device or computer. Additionally, 2 native mobile apps - Loss of the Night for iPhone & Android, and Dark Sky Meter for iPhone - support Globe at Night.

Since 2006, more than 125,000 vetted measurements from 115 countries have been reported. For 2015 the campaign is offered as a 10-day observation window each month when the Moon is not up. To facilitate Globe at Night as an international project, the web app and other materials are in many languages. (See www.globeatnight.org/downloads.) Students and the general public can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution’s effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. Projects have compared Globe at Night data with ground-truthing using meters for energy audits as well as with data on birds and bats, population density, satellite data and trends over time. Globe at Night tackles grand challenges and everyday problems. It provides resources for formal and informal educators to engage learners of all ages. It has 9 years of experience in best practices for data management, design, collection, visualization, interpretation, etc. It has externally evaluated its program, workshops, lesson plans and accompanying kit to explore reasons for participation, skills developed, impact of experiences and perceived outcomes. Three recent papers (Birriel et al. 2014; Kyba et al. 2013; 2015) verify the database’s validity for use in scientific research.

Globe at Night played a central role in IYA2009 and is now a citizen science campaign for the International Year of Light 2015

Constance Walker

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C.E. Walker, S.M. Pompea, R.T. Sparks, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

The Social Implications of Light at Night

Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.

Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified and appropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

Colin Henshaw

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: C. Henshaw, Health Studies and Training Centre, North West Armed Forces Prince Salman Hospital, Tabuk, SAUDI ARABIA

Re-interpreting R, R and R

Why are we so much more aware of environmental issues today than was the case 100-150 years ago, when particle-laden smoke belched out of chimneys, modes of travel (both near and distant) were best sellers, and fluorescent lighting made it possible to work all night as well as all day? Are we now paying the price of the Industrial Revolution? Not altogether. Along with the side-effects of all such “improvements” have come two other parallel but crucial developments: (1) technology to control harmful emissions, and (2) increased populations, each demanding - and getting - freedom of choice, as did their recent ancestors.

The Environmentalist’s Motto, the Three Rs (Re-duce, Re-use, Re-cycle) is perfectly clear: the prime action in all cases is REDUCE. The individual, however, looks to “Them” to make by-laws, or install efficient road lighting and controls just in the the public domain. The individual rarely accepts that the R, R, R message applies also to him or her, and to his or her family. Where then is freedom of choice? We discuss the alternative Three Rs (Rights, Recreations, Responsibilities) of the Individual’s Motto, and try to put them in working order. To do that, we discuss the impacts of night-time lighting on parties other than astronomers.

Elizabeth Griffin

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: E.M. Griffin, NRC, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA

Citizen Engagement for Starlight~ Taking it to a higher level

It is clearly evident that the time has come to dramatically increase the level of global citizen engagement for starlight restoration and light pollution abatement.

Examining what has worked for other sucessful global campaigns, we’ll share a leadership training corp program including a master power point that will be a living document, a truly global collaborative effort by light pollution abatement advocate groups and individuals that will be inclusive and responsive to the needs of current and future leaders… so that they may take activism to the next level… and starlight to the greatest level seen in decades. We can do this if we work together.

Starlight, Beyond Light Pollution Workshop in the Canary Islands

Audrey Fischer

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: A.A. Fischer, Chicago Astronomical Society, Chicago, Illinois, UNITED STATES

Implementation of IAU Resolution 2009 B5, “in Defence of the night sky and the right to starlight”

IAU Resolution 2009 B5 calls on IAU members to protect the public`s right to an unpolluted night sky as well as the astronomical quality of the sky around major research observatories. The approach of Commission 50 - astronomical site protection - includes working with the lighting industry for appropriate products from rapidly evolving solid state technology, arming astronomers with training and materials for presentation, selective endorsement of key protection issues, cooperation with other IAU commissions for education and outreach with particular current attention to the International Year of Light, and provision of clear quantitative priorities for outdoor lighting standards. In 2012, these priorities were defined as full cut-off shielding, spectral management to minimize output shortward of 500 nm, and zone- and time-appropriate lighting levels. Revisiting the specifics of these priorities will be a topic for current discussion.

Richard Green

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: R.F. Green, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATESC.E. Walker, Education and Public Outreach, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, UNITED STATES

FM21 Posters & Ancillary Presentations

Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies

The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.

This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.

The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses social media to post videos of eclipses and other celestial events that help non-astronomers remember how important it is to protect our dark skies.

Sandra Preston

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: S.L. Preston, F. Cianciolo, M. Wetzel, K. Finkelstein, W. Wren, C. Nance, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, UNITED STATES

Public Policy and Minimizing Visual Impacts: Automatic Activation of Obstruction Lighting with a Radar-based Visual Warning System (VWS)

Wind farms are required to install and maintain aviation obstruction lighting systems to provide aircraft a visual warning of the collision risk. Stakeholders recognize the environmental and social impacts of obstruction lighting at wind farms and are exploring strategies to mitigate the impact on surrounding communities. Community planners and supporters of dark skies initiatives are looking for technological advances to minimize the visual impacts of obstruction lighting while maintaining safety of the airspace surrounding wind farms. Changes in policies have favored synchronization of lights and increased the distance required between lit turbines, and the FAA is finalizing regulatory guidance to allow wind farms to install obstruction lighting systems that are automatically activated when aircraft are present and deactivated when aircraft are absent.

The HARRIER Visual Warning System (VWS) developed by DeTect, Inc. and installed at NextEra’s Perrin Ranch wind farm and on PSEG’s Susquehanna-Roseland transmission line minimizes the time when obstruction lights are illuminated using a ground, radar-based aircraft detection system. When the high-resolution airspace surveillance radar detects aircraft within defined perimeters the system signals the activation of wind farm obstruction lighting, and when aircraft depart a countdown initiates to turn the lights off. The DeTect VWS system provides extended-range detection of cooperative and non-cooperative aircraft, including ultralight aircraft, with 360-degree coverage and integrated failsafe operations.

Karen Voltura

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: T. Kelly, T. West, J. Lewis, K. Voltura, D. Ruppel, DeTect, Inc, Panama City, Florida, UNITED STATES

Yangbajing Astronomical Observatory of NAOC in Tibet: a good multi-wavelength site

Yangbajing Astronomical Station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC) is located in Yangbajing,Tibet (90o31¢502 E,30o06¢382 N, 4300m ). It is the first professional observatory operated by NAOC for science project in Tibet. This station was established on August 17, 2011, which means that Tibet has its first astronomical observatory. There are one 3-meter in diameter submillimeter telescope CCOSMA and five 40-50 cm optical telescopes. This could lay a solid foundation for attracting more international cooperation on large telescope projects in Tibet in future.

we have already tested the radio, millimeter/submillimeter and optical environment in Yangbajing. The result shows that Yangbajing station is a good desirable multi-wavelength astronomical observation site.

Jun-Jie Wang

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J. Wang, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, CHINA

Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi–do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

Jinhee Yu

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J. Yu, S. An, H. Bae, E. Roh, H. Chiang, J. Kim, S. Kim, Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul, KOREA (THE REPUBLIC OF)|S. Park, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, KOREA (THE REPUBLIC OF)

Low-cost photometers and open source software for Light Pollution research

Astronomical observatories have been measuring the brightness of the sky (NSB) using the methods of astronomical photometry with telescopes, photoelectric photometers and CCD cameras. The observations are disperse and sporadic. This is why some dedicated devices (including all-sky cameras) have been designed to automatically monitor the sky brightness at the observatories.

These sophisticated and expensive instruments are restricted to research groups since they are out of reach for the interested citizens who wish to make a contribution to light pollution research. Most of them are using sky photometers (sky quality meter, SQM) a commercial photometer, designed to measure NSB in a photometric band that mimics the human eye response, that provide reliable data at an affordable budget.

We are designing and building low cost devices to measure night sky brightness that could be widely distributed. The final designs will be calibrated and distributed to the community as open hardware. The researchers and also the interested people could acquire the parts and replicate the photometers from the instructions provided. Among the new features for these photometers we plan to add the capability to automatically send data to a repository located in a server, the autonomous operation with solar panels and batteries in remote places and the ability to measure in different spectral bands.

We also present open source software for NSB research. PySQM, designed for SQM photometers, records the NSB data in the IDA-IAU standard data format and also builds the plots along the night. PyASB analyses all-sky images to determine photometric parameters and to build all-sky NSB maps

Jaime Zamorano

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J. Zamorano, M. Nievas, A. Sánchez de Miguel, C. Tapia, S. Pascual, F. Ocaña, J. Gallego, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN|C. García, Agrupación Astronómica de Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN

Light Pollution REECL Spanish SQM Network

There are some networks of SQM photometers that provide measures of the night sky brightness every night. The analysis of the data provided by the photometers allows the researchers to monitor the nightly, monthly and yearly evolution of the NSB and the relationship with light sources of pollution in intensity and distance. The photometers that are measuring in protected areas will alarm the researchers about eventual increasing of light pollution that could affect the environment.

Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at different places and in which extension. Networks of fixed photometers acquiring data every night are one of the main inputs to test these models. The collaborative effort of many people provides the necessary data to derive scientific results.

We present the SQM network of the Spanish Light Pollution Research collaboration http://guaix.fis.ucm.es/splpr/SQM-REECL that is growing with the help of amateur astronomers and interested citizens. Data are being archived in the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) using the IAU and IDA community standard data format for light pollution measurements.

Jaime Zamorano

AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: J. Zamorano, A. Sánchez de Miguel, M. Nievas, C. Tapia, F. Ocaña, J. Izquierdo, J. Gallego, S. Pascual, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN|F. Colomer, Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Madrid, SPAIN|S. Bará, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, SPAIN|S. Ribas, Parc Astronòmic Montsec, Àger, SPAIN|Á. Morales, E. Marco, Universitat de València, Valencia, SPAIN|C. Muñoz-Tuñón, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, SPAIN|E. Solano, J. Alacid, Spanish Virtual Observatory, Madrid, SPAIN|R. Naves, J. Salto, Agrupación Astronómica de Barcelona-Aster, Barcelona, SPAIN|F. García, Asociación Astronómica Asturiana Omega, Gijón, SPAIN|R. Quejigo, J. Ribas, Agrupació Astronòmica d’Eivissa, Ibiza, SPAIN|S. Luque, Espai Astronòmic, Sant Martí Vell, SPAIN


Colin Henshaw
Light Pollution in ten minutes

Colin Henshaw
The Medical Implications of Light Pollution