Submitted Abstracts

Instrumentation 101 for Giant Telescopes

By: Roberto G Abraham

Abstract: Instrumentation 101 for Giant Telescopes

Over the last ~20 years I've watched a lot of smart people build instruments for 8m-class telescopes. Some of these instruments turned out to be successful, and some didn't. Based on this experience, I will sketch out some concepts that people should keep in mind when planning sensible instruments for the TMT. Most of these concepts are set by the laws of physics, but some are set by sociology. To keep things grounded, I will provide examples of bone-headed ideas (some of which were mine) that should be avoided, and good ideas (some of which were also mine) that should be embraced.

Galactic Archaeology with wide-field survey and high-resolution spectroscopy

By: Wako Aoki

Abstract: Studying galaxy formation and evolution based on observations of individual stars in the systems, so-called Galactic Archaeology, is making remarkable progress by combining spectroscopy, astrometry, and stellar seismology. High-resolution spectroscopy plays indispensable roles in the study determining detailed chemical abundances for stars selected by wide-field survey. For an example of such approach, we present results of our recent program applying the spectroscopic survey with the LAMOST and high-resolution spectroscopy with the Subaru Telescope for a large sample of metal-poor stars in our Milky Way. This presentation includes overall chemical abundance trend and scatter, detailed abundance patterns of alpha-element-enhanced/-deficient stars, and correlation with kinematic features in the Milky Way, which will be useful constraints to reveal the formation history of the halo structure including accretion of small stellar systems. In the TMT era, combinations of wide-field survey with 8-10m class telescopes (e.g. the Subaru Telescope with PFS) and high-resolution spectroscopy with TMT will not only extend the study to the wider range of the Milky Way but also cover nearby galaxies, which will contribute to the understanding of variations of galaxy formation.

Co-Authors: W. Aoki, G. Zhao, H-n. Li, T. Matsuno, J. Zhao, T. Suda, S. Honda

FIOS: A Fabry Perot Array Spectrograph for O_{2} Searches with ELTs

By: Sagi Ben-Ami

Abstract: With new photometric missions and surveys, the discovery of the first transiting, potentially earth-like planets is just around the corner. Once discovered, those planets will immediately become the focus of observations in search of atmospheric biomarkers such as H_2O, CH_4, O_3, and O_2. Given current and planned telescopes (and instrumentation), recent studies suggest the latter will be best detected from the ground. Here we present a study of technical and observational parameters which will produce the most sensitive observations of O_2 using instrumentation on the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs). Our study suggests spectral resolution well in excess of R~100,000 is optimal for O_2 detection. Therefore, we have developed a concept instrument based on an array of Fabry Perot Interferometers capable of achieving spectral resolutions in excess of R~300,000 on ELTs. Despite its high spectral resolution, the concept instrument has modest dimensions, and allows high throughput. We discuss simulations results, suggesting that such an instrument can reduce the number of observed transits needed for molecular oxygen detection by ~50%. Finally, we discuss design parameters and the unique aspects that need to be taken into account in the design of such an instrument, and present initial data from a lab pathfinder demonstrating its capabilities.

Co-Authors: Lopez-Morales M., Szentgyorgyi A., Garcia-Mejia J., González Abad G.

Direct Imaging and Spectral Characterization of Temperate, Neptune to Earth-Sized Exoplanets in Reflected Light with TMT


Abstract: In this talk, I chart the phase space for discovery and spectral characterization of Earth-to-Neptune sized exoplanets in reflected light around nearby stars with TMT. In the near-infrared, an instrument like TMT/PSI will be able to detect 1—4 R_earth planets around nearby M stars in near-infrared reflected light. Near-IR spectra probes methane for temperate Neptunes and may yield a detection of oxygen and perhaps water for Earth-sized planets. It will also provide the first comprehensive picture of the atmospheres of a diverse population of planets with intermediate sizes (1.5—3 R_earth) and compositions. Exo-Neptune/Earth spectral characterization leverages in part upon precursor RV observations. The science yield from this program is also further amplified by complementary observations with the Giant Magellan Telescope, under the umbrella of Key Science Programs being developed right now through NOAO.

Co-Authors: Olivier Guyon, Chris Packham, Christian Marois

Hunting for ancient brown dwarfs with TMT

By: Ilaria Caiazzo

Abstract: Globular clusters are the oldest conglomerates of stars in our Galaxy and can be useful laboratories to test theories from stellar evolution to cosmology. Stars in a globular cluster comprise an approximately uniform population in age, chemical composition and distance from Earth. Therefore, studying brown dwarfs in globular clusters would give the advantage of knowing within some error the population of membership of the objects. Furthermore, detecting the brightest brown dwarfs can provide a way to estimate the absolute age of a globular cluster. The transition region between the end of the main sequence and the brown dwarf regime is characterized by a dearth of objects as a function of magnitude; the brightest of the cooling brown dwarfs is easily identified by an increase in density in the color magnitude diagram as you go fainter in magnitudes, and these brightest brown dwarfs get fainter with age. By identifying the brightest brown dwarfs, it is thus possible to determine the age of a globular

cluster. This new method, which is independent of current methods of age estimation, will become feasible thanks to the high spatial resolution and incredible sensitivity of the Thirty Meter Telescope.

Understanding the seeds of supermassive black holes: prospects for intermediate mass black hole measurements with TMT

By: Tuan Do

Abstract: The origin of supermassive black holes have been subject to much debate, but progress in answering this question has been slow due to observational challenges. Supermassive black holes are thought to form either in-situ in the earliest era of galaxy formation, or they may be from the accumulation of smaller black holes. The measurement of the mass function of black holes should help to distinguish these scenarios. However, black holes in the mass range between stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes are difficult to constrain observation. I will discuss why robust measurements of intermediate mass black holes can only be made with telescopes like TMT. In addition, I will discuss targets from the Milky Way and local dwarf galaxies that may be the most promising for such a search with TMT.

Tracking Planet Footprints in Dusty Disks

By: Catherine Espaillat

Abstract: Significant sub-structure has been observed in protoplanetary disks that many researchers have posited are the “footprints” of planets. I will review the key observational constraints on the dust and gas properties of protoplanetary disks and examine these in the context of theoretical planet-induced disk clearing models. I will also discuss

possibilities for future work in this field in the era of TMT observations.

Dark Matter Halo Shapes with TMT

By: Jarah Evslin

Abstract: In simulations of the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM), dark matter halos are aspherical. However, so far the asphericity of an individual galaxy’s halo has never been robustly established. We use the Jeans equations to define a quantity that robustly characterizes a deviation from rotational symmetry. This quantity is essentially the gravitational torque and it roughly provides the ellipticity projected along the line of sight. We show that the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), with a single epoch of observations combined with those of the Gaia Space Telescope, can distinguish the ΛCDM value of the torque from zero for each Sculptor-like dwarf galaxy with a confidence between 0 and 5σ, depending on the orientation of each halo. With two epochs of observations, TMT will achieve a 5σ discovery of torque and thus asphericity for most such galaxies, thus providing a new and powerful test of the ΛCDM model.

Project Update for the Planetary Systems Imager

By: Michael Fitzgerald

Abstract: We will briefly review the science goals of the Planetary Systems Imager (PSI), a potential second-generation instrument for TMT. We will review the project status and ongoing activities, and highlight areas targeted for near-term development. Finally, we will summarize recent development of simulation tools in support of science case development and instrument trade studies, and highlight areas for future project growth.

Co-Authors: Ben Mazin and the PSI Team.

Using High Contrast Imaging on TMT to Directly Observe AGN Host Environments

By: Kevin Fogarty

Abstract: We investigate applications of the Planetary System Imager (PSI) for studying the host environments of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars. Given relatively modest contrasts between quasars and their host galaxies compared to stars and companion planets or disks, AGN science with ground-based high contrast imaging will be driven primarily by inner working angle and sensitivity. We discuss requirements for potential optical and infrared observations of AGN host galaxy stellar populations and nuclear starbursts, as well as potential spectroscopic observations to investigate the structure of multiphase material involved in AGN fueling and feedback. We place constraints on the spatial resolutions and sensitivities required to resolve host galaxies obscured by quasars both locally, and at redshifts of $z \sim 1$. Furthermore, recent observations using the extreme adaptive optics system on SPHERE on the VLT have demonstrated that for a handful of low-redshift targets, ground-based AO and coronagraphy may be useful for studying the circumnuclear regions and dusty torus of AGN. We discuss options for observing low-redshift AGN at high contrast with TMT and possible synergies such observations may have with JWST, in particular with the NIRISS instrument.

Co-Authors: Dimitri Mawet Max Millar-Blanchaer

Probing dark matter by forward modeling flux ratios in strong gravitational lenses

By: Daniel Gilman

Abstract: Dark matter theories make different predictions for the abundance and density profiles of dark matter halos below 10^8 solar masses. Gravitational lensing offers a unique probe of dark matter structure on these scales, since lensing observables depend directly on the presence of matter. In particular, the flux ratios between the multiple images in quadrupoly imaged quasars experience strong perturbations from dark matter halos below 10^8 solar masses, where dark matter halos host little to no stars. Through a forward modeling approach, we demonstrate a method to constrain the free streaming length of dark matter by measuring the shape and amplitude of the subhalo mass function, and the halo mass function in the field. Considering only halos in the main lens plane, for a sample of 50 lenses and systematics controlled at the 2% level, the bounds on the thermal relic mass range from 5.4 keV to 3.3 keV, depending on the severity of tidal destruction of subhalos in the main deflector. Including the additional contribution from line of sight halos, which for high redshift systems can dominate the signal, we forecast the full power of image flux ratios as a probe of the nature of dark matter.

Co-Authors: Tommaso Treu Simon Birrer Anna Nierenberg Chuck Keeton Andrew Benson

An Automated Machine Learning Classification Pipeline for ZTF/LSST Alert Stream

By: V. Zach Golkhou

Abstract: We present a real-time light curve classification of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) — and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) — alerts stream based-on Lambda Architecture (LA) and using Apache Kafka and Apache Spark. LA, a scalable and fault-tolerant data processing architecture, is designed to handle both real-time and historically aggregated batched data in an integrated fashion. Spark is a cluster computing framework which is widely used as an industry tool to deal with big data processing and contains built-in modules for streaming and machine learning processes. LA enables a continuous processing of real-time observation via speed layer. This layer ingests streaming alert packet as it is generated in the Apache Avro format, and distributed using Apache Kafka, and analyzes data in real-time to get insight immediately and provides potential targets for follow up to space/ground-based telescopes. The Batch transient classier engine (Batch layer) is based on a deep learning architecture. It ingests large batches of data, with counterparts cross-matched from the PS1, SDSS, and other catalogs, in order to extract the best features to classify transients in the dataset. Similar in concept to transfer learning, extracted features by the Batch engine can update the feature space of the Real-time engine (i.e. replace the model/classifier in the speed layer with the trained model in the Batch layer.)

Co-Authors: Andrew Connolly (UW), Magdalena Balazinska (UW)

High Contrast Imaging of Protoplanetary and Young Debris Disks with TMT

By: Carol Anne Grady

Abstract: The formation and migration of giant planets occurs while the disk is still gas rich, and presents structure not seen in older debris disks. If we wish to understand where, when, and under what circumstances planets sculpt their disks, this and the next 30 Myr are when we need to image them while both the disk and any giant planets it hosts are bright. Several instruments have been used for this purpose on 6-10 m class telescopes and have produced a few planet detections. Additional planets can be inferred when the inner disk is out of plane relative to the outer disk, indicating giant planet-giant planet scattering. Among debris disks are systems with features detectable via their gas absorption lines. Modeling suggests that these features are star-grazing bodies perturbed into high-eccentricity orbits by Jovian-mass planets orbiting outside warm debris belts. TMT can image the planets and disks in these systems. TMT will surpass the current crop of telescopes/instruments with improved angular resolution, which will increase the planet to star and disk contrast, by imaging closer to the star, and by imaging at mid-IR wavelengths where dust shrouding will be less significant and any planets may be detected with higher contrast.

TMT & LSST: Data Infrastructures for Time-Domain Science

By: Melissa Lynn Graham

Abstract: In the coming era of big telescopes, big surveys, and big data, breakthrough time-domain science will require breakthrough technologies. This talk will review some of the anticipated time-domain science goals that will be enabled by synergistic observations with the LSST and TMT, but will mainly focus on the required data infrastructures to support time-domain astronomy, and the current efforts of the LSST Project and the broader community to prepare for, and maximize, future science.

Spectroscopy of Resolved Stellar Populations and Globular Clusters in the Local Volume

By: Raja GuhaThakurta

Abstract: In the TMT era, the combination of wide-field imaging (e.g., with Subaru HSC, LSST, WFIRST) and multi-object spectroscopy (e.g., with ELTs, Subaru PFS, MSE) is likely to continue to be a powerful tool for the study of dark matter assembly, star formation, quenching, chemical enrichment, and rare stellar populations in the Local Volume. I will present the latest results from a few relevant studies, all based on low resolution multi-slit spectroscopy with the Keck II 10-meter telescope and the DEIMOS spectrograph: (1) PHAT survey of M31 and M33, where the spectroscopic targets are selected from six filter (UV, optical, and near IR) HST mosaic imaging; (2) HALO7D survey of the remote halo of the Milky Way, where the spectra are supplemented by proper motion measurements based on deep, multi-epoch HST mosaic imaging; and (3) NGVS survey of the Virgo Cluster, where globular cluster spectroscopic targets are selected based on photometry and image morphology. Each of these studies is barely scratching the surface in terms of spectral S/N and/or the size of the sample of targets that is bright enough for spectroscopy. These kinds of studies will benefit from the greater light gathering power of TMT and the other ELTs.

Co-Authors: A. C. N. Quirk, K. M. Gilbert, J. Wojno, E. N. Kirby, E. C. Cunningham, A. J. Deason, C. M. Rockosi, E. Toloba, and E. W. Peng

Probe the early growth of the Supermassive Black Holes with Subaru HSC-SSP wide field imaging.

By: Wanqiu He

Abstract: Cosmological evolution of the black hole mass function (BHMF) and Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) at z > 3 are the main demographic constraints to statistically unveil the growth history of SMBHs in the early universe. The wide and deep imaging of the HSC-SSP enables us to select a large sample of z=4 quasars around the knee of the luminosity function, i.e., the typical quasars at the epoch. We conducted the spectroscopic follow-up of the quasar sample with the AAT/AAOmega to estimate their black hole masses and Eddington ratios through the CIV emission line. Utilizing the 45 identified z~4 quasars at 20<i<22.5, which="" are="" ~2="" mag="" fainter="" than="" the="" sdss="" luminous="" quasars,="" we="" derived="" flux-limit="" corrected="" z="4" bhmf="" and="" erdf="" with="" a="" reliable="" constraint="" (="">10% completeness) at M_{BH}>10^{7.8} and \lambda_{Edd}>0.1. Different from previous studies suggesting a fast growth of the high-redshift quasars accreting at the Eddington limit, the newly derived z = 4 ERDF shows an increasing trend toward the low Eddington-ratio end, implying a similar trend to their low-redshift counterparts.

Co-Authors: Masayuki Akiyama, and HSC-AGN group collaborators

Tracing the Cycle of AGN Feeding and Feedback

By: Erin K. S. Hicks

Abstract: Recent near-IR integral field spectroscopic surveys of local AGN have established that their circumnuclear regions (~100pc) contain a large reservoir of molecular gas and that inflows and outflows are frequently present. In addition, on ~10pc scales, ALMA observations have revealed a rotating, turbulent, and inhomogeneous disk-like structure, and VLTI IR data show polar elongated structures indicative of outflow. A new picture is therefore emerging where, in contrast to a static “torus”, the obscuring central structure is dynamic and central to a cycle of gas flowing inward from the host galaxy and then outward by the AGN in a wind. Current observations suggest the inflow is driven by disk processes within the circumnuclear region, but the processes carrying gas down to scale of <10pc is unknown. The observed outflows are consistent with both radiation-driven outflow and magnetic disk-wind models. ELTs will provide a unique probe of multiple gas phases at the angular and spectral resolution, as well as sensitivity, needed to resolve the processes driving the inflow of material toward the central AGN and to differentiate the competing outflow models, and will thus provide critical insight into the feeding and feedback of AGN in the context of galaxy evolution. We suggest parameters for instrumentation that would optimally target this science case.

Co-Authors: E. K. S. Hicks, E. Lopez-Rodriguez, C. Packham, N. Levenson, R. Nikutta

Dynamical Effects of Stellar Feedback in Low Mass Galaxies at z~2

By: Jessie Hirtenstein

Abstract: Are gaseous outflows from young, massive stars strong enough to alter the gravitational potentials of dwarf galaxies, resolving the cusp-core problem? I will introduce the OSIRIS Lens-Amplified Survey (OLAS), a kinematic survey of gravitationally lensed galaxies at intermediate redshift taken with Keck adaptive optics designed to probe this question. I will present spatially resolved spectroscopy and nebular emission kinematic maps for 17 star forming galaxies with stellar masses $8 < \log(M_*/M_{\odot}) < 9.8$ and redshifts $1.2 < z < 2.3$. OLAS is designed to probe the stellar mass ($M_*$) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) range where simulations suggest that stellar feedback drives gas outflows that create galaxy-wide potential fluctuations which can generate dark-matter cores. These observations are consistent with feedback-driven turbulence and outflows from the FIRE simulations, which predict core formation in dwarf galaxies.

Co-Authors: T. Jones, X. Wang, A. Wetzel, K. El-Badry, A. Hoag, T. Treu, M. Bradac, T. Morishita

MICHI: a Thermal-Infrared Instrument for the TMT: Four Key Science Drivers

By: Mitsuhiko Honda


With the imminent launch of the JWST, the field of thermal-IR astronomy will enjoy a revolution. It is easy to imagine that all areas of IR astronomy will be greatly advanced, but perhaps impossible to conceive of the new vistas that will be opened. To allow both follow-up JWST observations and a continuance of work started on the ground-based 8m’s, we continue to plan the science cases and instrument design for a thermal-IR imager and spectrometer for early operation on the TMT. While JWST will have exceptional sensitivity over a wide field of view, TMT will offer superior spatial and spectral resolution, key to unraveling fundamental questions in nearly every field of astrophysics.

We present our key science cases and the instrumentation plans, harnessing expertise across the TMT partnership. This instrument was proposed by the MICHI team as a second-generation instrument in the upcoming call for proposals.

Co-Authors: Chris Packham, Mark Chun, Itsuki Sakon, Matthew Richter, Yoshiko Okamoto, Hirokazu Kataza, Christian Marois, Michael Meyer, Manoj Puravankara, Jayne Birkby, Ian Crossfield, Thayne Currie, Thomas Greathouse, Gregory Herczeg, Kohei Ichikawa, Hanae Inami, Masatoshi Imanishi, Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez, MICHI Science & Instrument Team

Latest observations of very high-z galaxies and prospects of TMT

By: Akio K Inoue

Abstract: In this talk, I will first present a review of recent observations of galaxies at z>6, the epoch of reionization (EoR), especially obtained with ALMA. Next I will briefly touch expectations with JWST. Finally I will discuss some potential breakthroughs with TMT after ALMA and JWST.

Exoplanet Imaging and Spectroscopy with the TMT

By: Rebecca Jensen-Clem

Abstract: In the last thirty years, thousands of planets have been discovered orbiting nearby stars. However, this menagerie of new worlds represents only a part of the planet formation parameter space: the most prolific methods for exoplanet discovery -- transits and radial velocities -- are sensitive to close-in planets, but largely miss bodies at wider separations like our own Saturn. Further, only a small number of the planets discovered with these methods are amenable to spectroscopic follow-up. Direct imaging, however, is a versatile method for discovering and characterizing the atmospheres of planets at a range of separations. To date, fewer than two dozen exoplanets have been directly imaged, and they represent only a rare class of young, self-luminous gas giants orbiting >10 AU from their host stars. Imaging and characterizing the atmospheres of planets in the <5 AU regime requires the TMT’s aperture in combination with an advanced AO system, coronagraph, and suite of spectrometers and imagers. Such an instrument (the Planetary Systems Imager) will allow us to directly study gaseous, icy, and rocky planets at a range of effective temperatures. It may even enable the detection of biosignatures in the atmosphere of planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars.

The technical development road map for the Planetary Systems Imager

By: Nemanja Jovanovic

Abstract: The Planetary Systems Imager (PSI) has been selected as the highest priority second generation instrument for TMT due to its potential to answer one of the most fundamental questions in science - are we alone? Unfortunately, while this is one of the simplest questions to state, it is one of the most difficult to answer. PSI provides a path toward answering this question by directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing terrestrial planets that orbit M dwarfs in the region where water can be retained on their surfaces in liquid form. The starlight suppression levels required for this ambitious endeavor are beyond those achieved by currently demonstrated performance capabilities on state-of-the-art high contrast imagers (HCI) on 8-10 m class telescopes when scaled to those expected with the larger aperture of TMT. To address this shortcoming, the PSI team have identified areas where effort should be focused over the next 3 years. The plan will accelerate the development of key areas in both technologies and in HCI techniques that will be critical to understanding and improving star light suppression including deformable mirror development, focal plane wavefront sensing, predictive control, sensor fusion and understanding the atmosphere. The plan proposed is oriented around a conceptual design of the instrument which will focus on a trade study based on risk assessment and mitigation. To accomplish this, science requirements will analyzed and optimized in a science requirement flowdown guided by a complete simulation tool chain with realistic science outputs. The outcome of this study will inform the PSI team so that a well informed proposal to design and build the full instrument can be submitted shortly after the conclusion of this program. We will present an overview of the technical development roadmap for PSI and how it will lead to transformative science.

Co-Authors: PSI team

Advantages of using High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph at TMT to study chemically peculiar stars

By: Viktor R. Khalack

Abstract: During their evolution at the main sequence, some stars of spectral classes B2-F4 show significantly enhanced or depleted abundances of chemical elements compared to their solar abundance. They are known under the common name of chemically peculiar (CP) stars. Competition between the gravitational and radiative forces in a hydrodynamically stable stellar atmosphere launches the mechanism of atomic diffusion that can be responsible for the abundance peculiarities observed in CP stars. The same mechanism can cause accumulation or depletion of chemical elements at certain optical depths and lead to a vertical stratification of element abundances in a stellar atmosphere.

To analyze the abundance peculiarities and the horizontal and vertical stratification of chemical elements in stellar atmospheres of CP stars we require high-resolution (R=100000) and high SNR spectra of these stars. Taking a full advantage of the TMT large aperture the High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (HROS) will provide a unique opportunity to study in detail the line profile variability observed in many CP stars. This variability can be explained in terms of abundance patches that in combination with magnetic widening (assuming magnetic rotator) modify a line profile with stellar rotation. High resolution TMT HROS spectra will help to put some constraints on abundance maps and structure of magnetic field in CP stars.

Co-Authors: V. Khalack

Extremely Metal-poor Emission-line Galaxy Survey with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam

By: Takashi Kojima

Abstract: We search for extremely metal-poor emission-line galaxies (EMPGs) lurking in the local universe (z<0.04). EMPGs show primordial properties such as very low metallicity (<10% Zsun), low stellar mass (10^5-7 Msun), and young star population (<30 Myr), which are similar to early-epoch galaxies. The EMPG is thus worth investigating as a local analog of early-epoch galaxies.

In this study, we use a deep, wide-field imaging data of Subaru/HSC to search for EMPGs. To select EMPGs, we choose galaxies that show g- and r-band excesses, which are caused by very strong nebular lines of EMPGs. Thanks to the HSC data, 5-7 mag deeper than SDSS data, we have discovered five faint EMPGs, whose i-band magnitudes reach ~23 mag.

In our poster presentation, we will report the results of our Magellan/MagE and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy for the EMPGs. We find that the EMPGs have gas-phase metallicities as low as ~3% Zsun and stellar masses as low as 10^5-7 Msun. We discuss the ISM properties, morphology, and environment of the EMPGs to understand the nature of the EMPGs.

Co-Authors: Masami Ouchi (Univ. of Tokyo) Masao Hayashi (NAOJ) Yoshiaki Ono (Univ. of Tokyo) Michael Rauch (Carnegie Observatories) Kiyoto Yabe (Kavli IPMU) Toshiyuki Amagasa (Tsukuba Univ.) Stephane Arnouts (LAM) Lingjian Chen (Saint Mary’s) Guillaume Desprez (Geneva U.) Anneya Golob (Saint Mary’s) Stephen Gwyn (HIA) Jiasheng Huang (CfA) Hiroyuki Kitagawa (Tsukuba Univ.) Thibaud Moutard (Saint Mary’s) Tohru Nagao (Ehime Univ.) Marcin Sawicki (Saint Mary’s) Masayuki Umemura (Tsukuba Univ.) Seiji Fujimoto (Univ. of Tokyo) Takuya Hashimoto (Osaka Sangyo Univ.) Yuichi Harikane (Univ. of Tokyo) Ryo Higuchi (Univ. of Tokyo) Ryohei Itoh (Univ. of Tokyo) Ji Hoon Kim (NAOJ) Yutaka Komiyama (NAOJ) Chien-Hsiu Lee (NAOJ) Hilmi Miftahul (Univ. of Tokyo) Daichi Miura (Tsukuba Univ.) Shiro Mukae (Univ. of Tokyo) Takatoshi Shibuya (Kitami Institute of Technology) Yuma Sugahara (Univ. of Tokyo)

Subaru proto-cluster studies in TMT era

By: Mariko Kubo

Abstract: One of the key question of observational cosmology is how the environmental dependence of galaxies today formed. Proto-clusters, high dense regions at high redshift, are the key targets to solve this problem. To search proto-clusters and study the properties of galaxies therein, the wide field sensitive cameras on Subaru Telescope, Suprime-Cam, Hyper Suprime-Cam and MOIRCS, have played a very important role. I’d like to review the state of the art studies of proto-clusters with Subaru; Narrow-band observations of various proto-clusters at intermediate redshift from MAHALO-SUBARU; X-ray to mm colorful studies of SSA22 proto-cluster at z=3.09; The power of large statistics by wide and uniform porto-cluster survey based on Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program. Then I will discuss their future prospects with TMT.

Co-Authors: Jun Toshikawa (ICRR, University of Tokyo), Nobunari Kashikawa (University of Tokyo), Tadayuki Kodama (Tohoku University), Hisakazu Uchiyama, Kei Ito (Sokendai/GUAS) et al.

Automated Testing of High Numerical Aperture Fibres

By: Tarun Kumar

Abstract: The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project is an example of a multi-object spectroscopy facility that has a fibre transmission system (FiTS). This facility will be equipped with an 11.25 m primary mirror that covers the wavelength range of 0.36-1.8 µm. The high throughput, stability, and reliability of optical fibres have made them an excellent industry standard for use in astronomical applications where high signal-to-noise data is needed. Despite their robustness, fibres are not without fault. High throughput should be tested experimentally to insure that it matches manufacturer’s specification. Focal ratio degradation (FRD) is another common adverse effect where the input f-ratio is degraded to a faster f/#, translating to a loss of signal, diminished spatial resolution, and increased complications in the calibrations. Under the FiTS project at UVic, we designed an optical system for an automated determination of the MSE-like fibre’s FRD and designed a master Python wrapper for the first time that performs the ring test efficiently and accurately. Additionally, we performed experiment to test the high throughput of the fibres and present preliminary results.

Co-Authors: F. Jahandar\textsuperscript{1}, S. Monty\textsuperscript{1}, J. Lee\textsuperscript{2}, K. Venn\textsuperscript{1}, C. Bradley\textsuperscript{2} and the FiTS Team\textsuperscript{1, 2, 3, 4, 5} \textsuperscript{1}Physics and Astronomy Department - University of Victoria, \textsuperscript{2}Mechanical Engineering Department - University of Victoria, \textsuperscript{3}NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, \textsuperscript{4}Physics and Astronomy Department – York University , \textsuperscript{5}Fibertech Optica

Characterizing the mechanism of interaction of supermassive black holes and their host galaxy as they co-evolve in cosmic time: A TMT perspective.

By: Sibasish Laha

Abstract: The reason for cosmic down sizing of quasars is still a big puzzle in astronomy and it is commonly believed that the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) must have played a significant role in quenching itself, in a self-regulatory mechanism popularly termed “AGN feedback” . The AGN feedback also plays a crucial role in black hole and host galaxy coevolution across cosmic time (evident for e.g., in the M-\sigma relation). I will discuss the nature and impact of pc scale outflows from AGN, detected in X-rays, popularly known as warm absorbers and ultra-fast outflows (WAX sample study, Laha et al. 2014, 2016), as well as kpc scale outflows detected in IR and sub-mm, popularly known as Molecular outflows (MOX sample study, Laha et al. 2018). These different types of outflows are believed to be strong contenders for removing gas and dust from the vicinity of the super massive black hole and thereby starving it to death (quenching). However, the exact nature of the interaction of these outflows with that of the host galaxy gas and dust is still highly debated. To address this issue, I will discuss how the spatially resolved studies of AGN host galaxy disks with IRIS - TMT be helpful in deciphering the nature of the interaction of these outflows with the host galaxy dust and gas.

Co-Authors: Matteo Guainazzi Enrico Piconcelli Poshak Gandhi Andrey Vayner Gregory Walth Arun Surya

Gaseous environments surrounding blue and red quasars

By: Marie Wingyee Lau

Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy and integral field spectroscopy on optically faint quasars, and their halo gas, are beyond the capability of current 10m telescopes. I will show results from absorption-line and emission-line studies of quasars that are luminous in the optical or infrared. In particular, the Quasars Probing Quasars survey have revealed a substantial, enriched gas reservoir, and evidence of outflows even in transverse directions to quasars. I will also show results on diffuse gas surrounding the rare, "extremely red quasars" population. These results motivate the need for optically faint quasar surveys for studying evolution with luminosity, redshift, and colors, which is only possible with extremely large telescopes. These results also motivate the need for accessing the even fainter emission lines from low ions in the halo gas. I will also show the Quasars Probing Quasars database and the software for accessing it, which may provide insights for organizing data archives for extremely large telescopes.

Co-Authors: J. X. Prochaska, J. F. Hennawi, F. Hamann, S. Perrotta, J. Gillette

Unravelling the nature of dust formation in Wolf-Rayet binaries

By: Ryan M Lau

Abstract: Dust is a key component of the interstellar medium and plays and important role in the formation of stars and planets. However, the dominant channels of dust production throughout cosmic time are uncertain. In this talk, I will discuss synergies between TMT/MICHI and our JWST Director's Discretionary Early Release Science (DD ERS) program, where we will investigate the formation mechanism and chemical composition of dust formed in the colliding winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries. Such systems may have a significant influence on the dust abundance in both the local and early Universe. However, details of the dust formation process are uncertain given the hostile environment in the vicinity of the WR+OB binary. High spatial resolution observations of the thermal IR enabled by TMT/MICHI will help to resolve important question of dust formation in colliding wind binaries.

Co-Authors: the WR DustERS Team

Observations of molecular oxygen in earth analogs with the TMT and GMT

By: Mercedes Lopez-Morales

Abstract: The discovery of the first transiting, potentially earth-like planets by projects like TESS, PLATO, SPECULOUS, MEarth, etc is just around the corner. Once discovered, those planets will immediately become the focus of observations in search for atmospheric biomarkers, such as H2O, CH4, O3, and O2. Given current and planned instrumentation, H2O, CH4, O3 will be best searched for from space. O2, on the other hand, will be best detected from the ground. Here we present ongoing work centered around optimizing the search for O2 in earth-like planets using high-resolution, doppler velocity techniques. We detail results of investigations of a series of technical and observational parameters, which will produce the most sensitive observations of O2 with instrumentation on ELTs. Those parameters include the optimal spectroscopic bands and spectral resolution for the observations, as well as the optimal type of exoplanetary system, based not only on the properties of the planet and the host star, but also on their systemic velocities.

Co-Authors: Sagi Ben-Ami*, Juliana Garcia-Mejia*, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Abad*, Andrew Szentgyorgyi* * Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Caught in the cosmic web: Galaxies in the Coma supercluster

By: Smriti Mahajan

Abstract: We use multi-wavenlength data for the galaxies to characterize the ~500 square degree region in the Coma supercluster into large-scale filaments, groups and clusters, and voids. We utilize this classification of environment to study trends in various optical and ultraviolet properties of galaxies with environment. We find that galaxies become more passive with decreasing distance from the spine of the filament. Our analysis shows that filaments provide a crucial intermediate-density environment, which not only bridge the gap between voids and dense clusters, but also accelerates the evolution of galaxies transiting through them much before the galaxies encounter the hostile cluster environment.

Co-Authors: A. Singh, D. Shobhana

Evolution of Blue spheroids in the nearby universe

By: Smriti Mahajan

Abstract: In an recent work we have tested if nearby blue spheroid (BSph) galaxies may become the progenitors of star-forming spiral galaxies or passively evolving elliptical galaxies by using panchromatic data from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly and ALFALFA surveys. We find that BSph galaxies are structurally very similar to their passively evolving red counterparts, but their star formation and other properties are more like star-forming spirals. We show that BSph galaxies are statistically distinguishable from other spheroids as well as spirals in the multidimensional space mapped by luminosity-weighted age, metallicity, dust mass, and specific star formation rate. We use HI data to reveal that some of the BSphs are (further) developing their discs, hence their blue colours. They may eventually become spiral galaxies or fade into low-mass red galaxies depending upon their present environment.

Co-Authors: M. J. Drinkwater, S. Driver, A. M. Hopkins, A.W. Graham, S. Brough, M. J. I. Brown, B. W. Holwerda, M. S. Owers, K. A. Pimbblet

Thermal Imaging and Characterization of Rocky Earth-size Habitable Zone Planets in the Solar Neighborhood with TMT

By: Christian Marois

Abstract: TMT, with an impressive ~200x gain (D^4) in integration time compare to current generation of 8-m telescopes, as well as delivering ~4x higher resolution, will open-up, first the first time, the ability to directly image and characterize Earth-size planets around several nearby Sun-like stars. Starting with some basic assumptions, I will summarize the expected contrast, the sensitivity performances, and estimate the required integration time to achieve a 5-sigma detection of an Earth-analog for each nearby system. I will show some early simulations, and the instrument overall concept. Finally, I will review the various challenges that will need to be resolved to enable this breakthrough science case.

Co-Authors: Christian Marois Célia Blain Chris Packham For the PSI/MICHI/TIKI teams

Understanding Circumgalactic Gas Kinematics in the 2020's and Beyond: Science Requirements for ELTs

By: Crystal L. Martin

Abstract: A key science goal for TMT will be to quantitatively characterize circumgalactic gas properties across a wide redshift range. I will

describe the implications of our recent kinematic study for designing a key science program with ELT facilities, emphasizing target density, spectral resolution, and spatially resolved galaxy morphologies. Most researchers are surprised to learn that most of the baryons associated with galaxy halos reside in the circumgalactic medium. A significant fraction of this mass is at temperatures well below the halo virial temperature. The dynamics of this cool gas likely regulate the feeding of galactic disks and reveal the impact of feedback on circumgalactic gas, but we have few empirical constraints on how these processes work. We recently measured the circumgalactic gas kinematics using absorption lines detected in spectra of quasars behind low-redshift galaxies. The results provide the first empirical constraints on the extended disks and streams feeding galactic disks and illustrate where galactic winds deposit energy, momentum, and metals. A key science program with ELTs will provide multiple sightlines per galaxy and turn what are currently rough estimates of physical conditions into well-constrained measurements.

Co-Authors: S. H. Ho

MODHIS: a multi-object diffraction-limited high-resolution infrared spectrograph for TMT

By: Dimitri Mawet

Abstract: MODHIS is a multi-object diffraction-limited high-resolution infrared spectrograph for TMT-NFIRAOS and PSI. MODHIS features a very compact and stable, cost-effective design built to fully exploit the existing NFIRAOS infrastructure and boost the scientific reach of TMT at first light. MODHIS is based on the latest diffraction-limited single-mode fiber injection, detector, multiplexing, and calibration (Laser Frequency Comb) technologies, and will provide unprecedented capabilities to the TMT community. MODHIS will take R ≃ 100,000 spectra of up to 10 objects in a 30” diffraction-limited field of view sampled at 0”.02 per resolution element covering the entire 0.95 to 2.4 wavelength range at once (Y to K). MODHIS will enable rich molecular and velocimetry measurements of compact and extended objects ranging from young stars, distant giant stars, protoplanetary disks, ultra-luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies, Solar system objects, and more. This facility will be a state-of-the-art infrared Doppler machine exploiting the tremendous light collecting and angular resolution capabilities of TMT. MODHIS will tackle multiple challenging observations in exoplanet science such as infrared precision radial velocity (RV) measurements, exoplanet transit spectroscopy, and ground-breaking applications such as surface mapping of brown dwarfs and directly-imaged planetary mass companions.

Chemistry and kinematics in the planet-forming environment

By: Peregrine McGehee

Abstract: Thanks to increasingly powerful astronomical tools and techniques we are routinely probing protoplanetary disks around newly formed stars. In parallel, thousands of exoplanets have been discovered around mature, low-mass stars. Relating these phenomena through a unified theory of planet formation that explains the formation, migration, and properties of these planets requires information on conditions within the progenitor disks, as well as studies of newly formed planets, both at the same scale (<10AU) of current exoplanet surveys. At present, high S/N, kinematically and spatially resolved gas observations of disks are mostly limited to >10 AU separation, and biased towards brighter, intermediate-mass stars. The upcoming generation of ELTs will bridge this gap and allow us to investigate the initial conditions, locations, and timescales of planet formation in a way not previously possible, in statistically robust samples. We propose to use optical and infrared spectroscopy to:

o Probe physical and chemical conditions in protoplanetary disks at the scale of planet formation;

o Trace the flow of disk mass, angular momentum, and dust in disks via accretion, winds, and jets;

o Investigate CNO chemistry, grain trapping, and circulation in the warm molecular layer of circumstellar disks throughout the region of planetary formation;

o Map the distribution of organic molecules, including isotopologues, interior to the snow line of protostars exhibiting a range of circumstellar disk states, including normal accretion and FU Ori outbursts.

Co-Authors: J. Bae, G. Blake, A. Boss, S. Brittain, S. Dobson-Robinson, J. Faherty, E. Gaidos, H. Jang-Cordell, M. Liu, M. Meyer, A. Weinberger

Tracing the Formation of Habitable Worlds with eExtremely Large Telescopes

By: Karen Jean Meech

Abstract: Small solar system bodies (comets, Centaurs, asteroids, TNOs) represent the most primitive remnants of the solar system extant. As such they record the chemical and physical fingerprints of processes occurring in our solar system’s protoplanetary disk during the era of planet growth. Tracing the process of creating habitable worlds in our solar system and how this compares to exoplanetary systems requires an understanding not only of the disk chemistry affecting the planetesimals but also dynamical scattering. Both processes contributed to the planetary architecture we see today. Tracing these past events requires an observational survey of the surface compositions of the left-over planetesimals that have not been compositionally altered: comets, small asteroids, Centaurs and TNOs. Spectral classification within the asteroid belt has revealed the rich dynamics in the early solar system. Bodies originating from the outer solar system give us the ability to test dynamical models of solar system formation, but observing sufficient numbers of these objects is challenging. This talk will discuss how the next generation of large telescopes will be transformative in their ability to observe sufficient numbers of outer solar system small bodies to be able to test state of the art formation models.

Characterizing Extrasolar Planetary Systems in Polarized Light with TMT-PSI

By: Maxwell A Millar-Blanchaer

Abstract: On the current generation of high-contrast imagers, such as GPI and SPHERE, polarimetry has emerged as a powerful technique for the characterization of circumstellar disks. For these highly polarized sources (with degrees of linear polarizations of several tens of percent) polarimetric differential imaging is used to distinguish between polarized emission from a disk and the residual stellar speckles left uncorrected by an adaptive optics and coronagraph system, allowing for the characterization of both disk morphology and scattering properties. With the TMT-Planetary Systems Imager (PSI), we expect to be able to image reflected-light planets around the nearest stars. When seen in reflected light, solar system planets and moons (such as Titan) can have peak degrees of linear polarization between several percent and several tens of percent, making reflected-light planets accessible to PDI. The exact degree of polarization as a function of wavelength is strongly dependent on the characteristics of a given planet’s atmosphere. Thus, in the context of TMT, polarimetry is poised to play a critical role not only in the study of circumstellar disks, but also in the detection and atmospheric characterization of reflected-light planets. Here I will give a brief overview of existing high-contrast polarimetric imagers, some of the exciting results that have come out of them, and then provide a look forward to some of the groundbreaking polarimetric science we can look forward to with TMT-PSI.

Co-Authors: PSI Team

Probing high-redshift transients with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam and TMT

By: Takashi Moriya

Abstract: High-redshift transients, especially supernovae, are important tools to investigate the properties of the early Universe like the stellar initial mass functions, as well as stellar evolution at very low metallicities. Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is a wide-field (1.8 deg2) camera on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope that allows us to conduct deep and wide transient surveys efficiently. We have performed the deep (~ 26.5 mag limit) and wide (1.8 deg2) transient survey for a half year in 2016-2017 with HSC. This survey has led the discoveries of, e.g., Type Ia supernovae at z ~ 1 and superluminous supernovae at z ~ 2. During the survey, we found many supernova candidates at even higher redshifts (z > ~3) but they were often too faint to spectroscopically confirm their nature with 8-10m class telescopes. TMT will allow us to spectroscopically confirm the nature of such high-redshift supernova candidates. Conducting deep and wide transient surveys with HSC and then performing spectroscopic follow-up observations with TMT will significantly push the frontier of the high redshift supernova studies. I will discuss the impact of such a transient survey combining HSC and TMT based on the HSC transient survey we have conducted.

Co-Authors: Masaomi Tanaka

Gas flows in the central 100 pc of dual active galactic nuclei

By: Francisco Muller-Sanchez

Abstract: Dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the Rosetta stone to understand the role of galaxy mergers in triggering nuclear activity and regulating black hole and galaxy growth. The work I will present here characterizes for the first time the properties of the stars, gas (molecular, ionized, and highly-ionized) and dust in all the confirmed dual AGN at z < 0.05, using Keck/OSIRIS, VLT/SINFONI, SOFIA/FORCAST, and HST data. I will focus on the interplay between the several complex processes observed in dual AGN, using as an example the prototypical merger system NGC 6240: vigorous star formation, two AGNs, outflowing winds of ionized gas, rippling dust and gas lanes, and tidal tails. In this galaxy, we observe for the first time a dual outflow of different species of gas: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. This shows that stellar feedback and supermassive black hole feedback can work in tandem to regulate the stellar growth of a galaxy after a merger event. These results open a new door to studies of dual AGN and AGN pairs in general, and enable dual AGN to be used, for the first time, for studies of galaxy evolution. The prospects for TMT observations of dual AGN will be also discussed, including AGN feeding and feedback at parsec scales and the starburst-AGN connection

MICHI: A Thermal-IR Instrument for the TMT

By: Chris Packham

Abstract: To enable exoplanet, protoplanetary disk, AGN, follow-up JWST observations, and continuation of work started on 8m’s, we continue to plan the science cases and instrument design for a TIR imager and spectrometer for early operation on the TMT. We present the current status of our science cases and the instrumentation plans, harnessing expertise across the TMT partnership. This instrument will be proposed by the MICHI team as a second-generation instrument.

Co-Authors: Packham, Chris; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Chun, Mark; Sakon, Itsuki; Richter, Matthew; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Kataza, Hirokazu; Marois, Christian; Meyer, Michael; Puravankara, Manoj; Birkby, Jayne; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Greathouse, Thomas; Herczeg, Gregory; Ichikawa, Kohei; Inami, Hanae; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

The dynamics and stellar populations of faint galaxies with large telescopes

By: Eric Peng

Abstract: Low-luminosity galaxies are abundant in the Universe. Their stellar populations and dark matter content are key to understanding galaxy formation and quenching at the earliest epochs, but their low surface brightnesses make it expensive to obtain this information, even with 8-10m-class telescopes. Using discrete tracers like globular clusters (GCs) and planetary nebulae circumvents the problem of low surface brightness, and provides an efficient way to measure dynamical masses and stellar populations of nearby low-mass galaxies. We will present our recent work with Keck/DEIMOS, in which we have observed GCs in dwarfs and "ultra-diffuse galaxies" in the nearby Virgo cluster, and show how these studies are a pathfinder for breakthrough science that will be enabled by TMT.

Co-Authors: Elisa Toloba, Sungsoon Lim, Puragra Guhathakurta, Laura Sales

Breakthrough Science Through the Measurement of Transverse Extragalactic Motions

By: Michael Jay Pierce

Abstract: IRIS + NFIRAOS on TMT may allow the measurement of transverse extragalactic motions for the first time. The Earth's motion of 78 AU/yr relative to the CMB provides a well-defined secular parallactic baseline resulting in line-of-sight changes for extragalactic sources. The high resolution provided by AO on TMT and the large magnifications present in gravitationally lensed systems should enable a measurement of this phenomena through both astrometric shifts and surface brightness changes in the gravitational arc pixels. Averaging over 100 systems would reduce the contributions from the random motion of the lenses and sources to a negligible level and allow the development of breakthrough science via a new cosmological distance measure, namely the parallactic distance.

The European ELT: science and instrumentation

By: Suzanne Katherine Ramsay

Abstract: The European Extremely Large Telescope entered its construction phase in December 2014. Alongside the construction of the telescope, the first scientific instruments are in their early design phases. Planning is underway for the next phase of instrumentation. In this presenation, the status of the telescope and its instruments will be presented along with an overview of the science cases that will be tackled by this telescope.

Co-Authors: Michele Cirasuolo (ES0) Roberto Tamai (ESO)

Characterizing rocky planets in the habitable zone of M stars with a vortex fiber nuller

By: Garreth Ruane

Abstract: Future giant segmented mirror telescopes (>30m) on the ground may enable the detection and characterization of Earth-sized exoplanets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs for the first time. We present a fiber nulling method that takes advantage of the favorable flux ratio between close-in exoplanets in reflected light by peering closer than 1 lambda/D from the host star. The optical system makes use of a vortex phase mask and single mode fiber to null starlight while allowing the planet light to transmit to a high resolution spectrograph. Cross-correlating the measured spectrum with a well matched theoretical template relaxes the signal-to-noise ratio requirements to ∼0.1 per spectral channel. We predict that with 1 mas rms tip/tilt control, sensitivity to Earth-sized planets may be achieved with TMT in 45 habitable zones with less than 50 hours integration time on each target. What is more, the effective field of view of a vortex fiber nuller does not depend on azimuthal angle allowing for efficient follow up of exoplanets detected through stellar radial velocity measurements.

Co-Authors: G. Ruane, D. Echeverri, N. Jovanovic, D. Mawet

Evolving Perspectives in the formation and evolution of Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

By: Ramya Sethuram

Abstract: Giant Low Surface Brightness galaxies (GLSBs) are considered to be extreme type of spiral galaxies with a prominent bulge and very faint but extended disk. The extended disks are sometimes associated with a prominent ring structure around the galaxy. We have photometrically studied a sample of GLSBs to understand their formation and evolution. Using Galfit on SDSS photometric data, we decompose them into a Sersic bulge and an extended exponential disk. The Sersic bulge component is massive, compact and have high stellar velocity dispersion for their luminosities. These properties puts them at the extreme end of the Kormendy and Fundamental plane scaling relations obeyed by local early-type galaxies. The sizes of the bulges have an effective radii ~2 kpc with stellar masses M* > 10^10.5 Msun. The bulge component of GLSBs lie on the stellar mass-size relation followed by compact ellipticals at redshift, z ~ 1-2. Their disks are very extended, having sizes in excess of ~10 kpc and obey the mass-size relation of local late-type galaxies. We hence hypothesise that the bulge component in GLSBs might have formed dissipatively at z ≈ 2 while the extended disk has assembled/formed later from z ∼ 1 − 0 in many minor merger episodes.

Co-Authors: Smitha Subramanian, L. C. Ho, Lei Hao, Dong Chenxing

Probing the physics of compact objects with TMT

By: Aarran Shaw

Abstract: With both first light and potential next-generation instruments on the TMT, we will be able to probe the physics of compact objects in unprecedented detail. I will discuss the huge potential of a dedicated radial velocity survey of candidate black hole (BH) X-ray binaries (XRBs) to measure masses, probing >~10 times deeper than current generation telescopes allow. Such a survey will allow us to construct a reliable BH mass distribution for the first time, which is vital for a better understanding of supernova explosion physics. In addition I will highlight how the fast timing photometric capabilities of current generation instruments have allowed us to constrain not only the nature of rapid optical (and X-ray) variability in XRBs, but also the physical size of the emission regions close to a BH. I will use these results to highlight the advantages of a fast photometer in the next generation of TMT instruments, showing that such an instrument will allow us to build up a detailed picture of rapid variability in XRBs at all flux levels, and will also have applications for studies of rapidly rotating neutron star systems, as well as white dwarf pulsars, and even transiting exoplanets.

Co-Authors: C. O. Heinke

The Properties of Radio Galaxies and the Effect of Environment in the ORELSE Survey at z~1

By: Lu Shen

Abstract: We investigate the properties of radio galaxies and their environmental preference in ORELSE survey at z~1. The radio galaxies are classified into three sub-classes: active galactic nucleus (AGN), Hybrid, and star-forming galaxy (SFG). AGN tend to be preferentially located in locally dense environments and in the cores of clusters/groups, suggesting that their activity may be ignited in the cluster/group virialized core regions. SFGs exhibit a strong preference for intermediate-density global environments, suggesting that dusty starbursting activity driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions and merging. Hybrids selected in the intermediate region in the classification, were found be a unique type of radio galaxies rather than a mixture of AGN and SFGs, and suggest having coeval star-formation and AGN activity with high accretion efficiency. Further study on radio AGN on their neighboring galaxies reveals an elevated quiescent fraction of radio AGN neighboring galaxies, compared to these of non-RAGN control neighboring galaxies in the most dense environments, while no significant difference shown in the less dense environments. We suggest that radio AGN residing within clusters might heat the intracluster medium affecting both in situ star formation and any inflowing gas that remains in their neighboring galaxies.

Co-Authors: L Lubin, B Lemaux, D Pelliccia, A Tomczak, N Miller, C Fassnacht, R Becker

The Science Flowdown and Use of Input From ISDTs by the TMT Project Groups.

By: Warren Skidmore

Abstract: I'll give a brief update on the status of the Science Flowdown of technical requirements from the 2015 Detailed Science Case and how the system for tracking requirements and tracing them to subsystems has been set up. I'll give other examples of how inputs from ISDTs and other science teams has been incorporated into aspects of observatory design. Lastly I'll mention the the new Science Case Development Tool that integrates the development of science cases and the capture of technical requirements.

Co-Authors: Erica Sawczynec, Olivia Murray, Kayla Hardie, John Miles, Jacob Llamas, Eric Ho

TMT WEPOC - Balancing Communities, Sites, TIO Partnership and Individual Partner Needs

By: Gordon Squires

Abstract: The TMT Workforce, Education, Public Outreach and Communications ( WEPOC) needs have evolved significantly from the early phase of the project to the present day. Challenges with respect to possible host sites and communities are balanced with the needs to the TIO international partnership, individual TIO partner needs, and the potential for a new US-ELT program. In this presentation, I give a short overview of WEPOC plans and programs addressing how each of these factors informs the overall TIO WEPOC effort.

Co-Authors: Sandra Dawson, Janesse Brewer and the TMT International Observatory WEPOC Board

IRIS science capabilities using the fast readout mode of the imager

By: Arun Surya

Abstract: IRIS (InfrarRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the first light near-infrared diffraction-limited imager and integral field spectrograph designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS will have unique imager detector readout modes for fast cadence science observations. The IRIS Hawaii-4RG detectors have the capability to readout smaller windows at a more rapid rate (~600 Hz for 6x6 single window) than the full-frame readout time. These subarrays will be used for several purposes: (1) on-detector guide windows for the adaptive optics system; (2) mitigation of saturation effects from bright objects; and (3) science targets with high cadence (10 ms-1s). Example IRIS science cases that will utilize fast readout mode are imaging of Blazar jets, nearby AGN’s, cataclysmic variables, Sgr A*, and trans-neptunian object occultations. We will discuss the current technical and science trade-study that selects the number of subarray pixels between the subarray and full-frame readout time. The choice of subarray pixels determined for operation is selected by predicting numbering of potential saturation events in IRIS imaging fields and associated science requirements. We will show preliminary results of this trade study and discuss IRIS fast cadence science operations and strategies of using fast readout mode with IRIS imager.

Co-Authors: Shelley Wright

Supermassive Black Hole Formation from Pop III.1 Protostars - Tests for TMT?

By: Jonathan Tan

Abstract: I discuss a theory for the formation of all supermassive black holes (SMBHs) via supermassive primordial (Population III.1) protostars, which are the first objects to form in their local regions of the universe. The model makes predictions for the formation redshifts and spatial clustering of the Pop III.1 protostars and SMBH remnants that may be testable by future TMT observations. In the fiducial models, SMBH formation is largely complete by redshifts of $z\sim 20$. After subsequent evolution to $z=10$, the typical SMBH resides in a dark matter halo of mass $\gtrsim10^8\:M_\odot$ and the two point angular correlation function of the sources is very flat, i.e., with little clustering on small scales. I summarize other implications of this formation mechanism and discuss how TMT may help test the theory.

Co-Authors: N. Banik, P. Monaco, K. Chanchaiworawit, K. Tanaka, K. Fridell

Understanding exoplanet host stars in preparation for the TMT era

By: Angelle Tanner

Abstract: Soon to be released is the Starchive, an open access, open source on-line database and web app which will be a critical resource for TMT exoplanet programs. The multiplicity, additional planets, metallicity, activity levels of a star will be essential information for both target vetting and interpreting the origin of planetary systems. Currently, the Starchive database contains multiple stellar samples including all stars within 30pc, brown dwarfs and white dwarfs, stars with planets and circumstellar disks and stars in young stellar associations. The single star result page contains all published measurements and derived physical parameters on that star, a Vizier image and high contrast images. If the star is in a multiple system, there is a clear hierarchical tree with live links to the other members of the system. Users are able to download a text, .csv or latex file of that table. Registered users will be able to upload data into the database. To ensure the fidelity of the data, we will highly regulate and constantly validate any uploaded data sets. This poster is intended to introduce the community to the Starchive with an emphasis on its synergy with TMT stellar and exoplanet observing programs and science goals.

Exploiting the power of TMT to probe the dark universe via strong lensing

By: Tommaso Treu

Abstract: TMT will have unprecedented resolution and light-gathering power, making it a fantastic tool for strong lensing. I will describe how TMT can provide new insights into the nature of dark energy and dark matter via a large program dedicated to strong lens systems.

Observing the Solar System with TMT

By: David Trilling

Abstract: Both the science and the technical aspects of observing the Solar System with TMT have some unique aspects. I will present Solar System highlights from NOAO's recent ELT Key Science Program development effort, with an emphasis on topics and discovery space that will be newly available with TMT.

Co-Authors: Tommy Greathouse, Mike Wong, and the NOAO ELT Solar System KSP team


By: Chao-Wei Tsai

Abstract: Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. Selected by their utmost red colors in WISE bands, their SEDs indicate that hot dust cocoon with a range of temperatures dominates the bolometric luminosity. They are likely powered by highly obscured AGN. The measured masses reflect their close-to-Eddington or super-Eddington accretions. This hyperluminous, highly obscured population may represent a special evolutionary stage prior to the red quasar and optical quasar phases.

The high obscuration in Hot DOGs makes it easier to study the host galaxies of these powerful quasars. We will separate the contributions of the host galaxy from the quasar both spatially and dynamically, and directly probe the host galaxy activities using IRIS and MICHI. We can study the AGN feedback via spatially resolved kinematics of the high-velocity outflows, and the star formation activity of the host from the extended Balmer emission. We can also investigate the dust distribution using extinction map from the Balmer decrement, and using direct dust thermal and PAH emission. The superb capability of TMT will make it possible to survey large numbers of highly obscured quasars, and better study the AGN-host interaction during this transitional phase.

Point-Spread Function Reconstruction on Keck: Preparing for Accurate Stellar Astrometry and Photometry on IRIS

By: Paolo Turri

Abstract: The TMT will achieve very precise astrometry and photometry thanks to its large aperture and performing adaptive optics system, enabling a deeper study of the dynamics and composition of dense stellar systems like the Galactic Center, globular clusters, and galaxies in the Local Group.

One of the main challenges in fitting the point-spread function (PSF) is to determine accurately its shape caused by atmospheric turbulence and instrumental aberrations. In recent years, there have been several efforts to use PSF reconstruction (PSFR), a technique for predicting the PSF of an instrument using adaptive optics in any point of the field of view. This new approach will become more common in the next decades, especially in the use of IRIS on TMT. But while it has been demonstrated to work on sky in simple tests, it has never been applied to scientific observations.

We are developing AIROPA, a PSF-fitting software based on StarFinder that applies PSFR on images of the Galactic Center taken with NIRC2, the AO camera at Keck. I will show simulations of its performance and the astrometric and photometric gain expected when compared to classical methods of PSF extraction.

Co-Authors: P. Turri, J. R. Lu, G. Witzel, T. Do, A. Ciurlo

Merging Supermassive Black Holes in the Age of ELTs

By: Vivian U

Abstract: The upcoming decades will present exciting opportunities to explore the physics of merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) from the multi-messenger perspective. While the gravitational wave spotlight will include mergers of black holes in the regime much more massive than those gravitational wave events discovered thus far, the electromagnetic identification of these candidates and subsequent detailed follow-ups will become indispensable tools for probing the gas and stellar dynamics associated with this phenomenon. In particular, the ELTs will not only probe binary SMBHs within parsec separations in unprecedented detail within the local universe, but they will also explore SMBH merger progenitors during the period in cosmic history when mergers are expected to be dominant. I will discuss the observational frontier the ELTs will achieve in pushing the resolution and sensitivity limits within detailed studies of the nuclei of merging systems to high redshifts. An ELT science case on merging SMBHs throughout cosmic times can shed light on the SMBH merger timescales, where implication of binary populations will help constrain future gravitational wave predictions in the realms of LISA and PTA.

Exploring the Supermassive Black Hole - Galaxy Connection

By: Jonelle Walsh

Abstract: Over the past two decades it has become increasingly clear that supermassive black holes (BHs) are essential components of galaxies, as demonstrated by the empirical correlations connecting BH masses and

large-scale galaxy properties. About 100 dynamical BH mass measurements have been made to date, however the local BH mass census remains highly incomplete and the exact role BHs play in galaxy evolution, and the primary physical mechanisms that drive the empirical relations, are far from understood. In this talk, I will discuss our current picture of BH demographics, the outstanding fundamental questions, and the exciting prospects for gaining insight into the interplay between BHs and galaxies in the era of TMT and extremely large telescopes.

Spatially resolved study of the Local Group galaxies

By: Chikako Yasui

Abstract: We have been investigating the metallicity dependence of star and planet

formation, particularly focusing on the outer Galaxy with a

Galactocentric distance (Rg) of ~=15 kpc, where the metallicity is

determined to be as low as ~-1 dex.

We have obtained near-infrared (NIR) images of young clusters in the

outer Galaxy through the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope and have clearly

resolved the cluster members with mass detection limits of

~0.1 M_sun.

Consequently, we determined that the initial mass function (IMF) in the

outer Galaxy is consistent with that in the solar neighborhood with

regard to high-mass slope and IMF peak.

Meanwhile, we suggested that the lifetime of protoplanetary disks

is significantly shorter than that in the solar neighborhood.

We also reported a metallicity dependence of the disk lifetime.

Future observations with higher spatial resolution and sensitivity by

using TMT will allow us to extend the spatially resolved studies on the

IMF and protoplanetary disk evolution to Local Group galaxies.

With high spatial resolution and sensitivity (i.e. 0.02 arcsec and K~27

mag with an adaptive optics), stars with mass of down to ~0.1 M_sun can

be detected and also sufficiently resolved.

Based on such a study in a wider variety of environments, we can gain

new insights related to environmental effects of star and planet


The formation of low-mass galaxies: puzzles and requirements of TMT

By: XianZhong Zheng

Abstract: Galaxies in the low-mass regime are composed of diverse populations and remain poorly explored, in comparison with the massive galaxies that have been widely examined out to high-z. A number of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the local universe are found to host a high abundance of globular clusters and believed to reside in massive dark matter haloes. The origin of such systems challenges the current galaxy formation theories. Meanwhile, the low-metallicity dwarf galaxies show dust obscuration insensitive to SFR and galaxy size, being a puzzle to our understanding of galaxy properties. The TMT-size aperture will allow us to spectroscopically measure velocity dispersion down to V~25-26 mag and construct the spatially-resolved kinematics for these faint galaxies, as well as for faint high-z galaxies. In this talk I will present a few puzzles recently raised on low-mass galaxies and discuss the requirements of TMT for such studies.

Spatially resolved properties of 0.1 < z < 0.5 galaxies from the MUSE-Wide Survey and CANDELS Survey

By: marziye jafariyazani

Abstract: Studying internal processes of individual galaxies at kilo-parsec scales is essential to enhance our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution processes. This is especially the case for intermediate and high-redshift galaxies which most remain unresolved due to resolution limit of existing instruments and requires future 30-meter class telescopes to be fully addressed. In this work, as an effort to extend spatially resolved spectroscopy to galaxies beyond redshift zero, we investigate the distribution of mass, SFR and dust attenuation across individual galaxies for a sample of nearly 40 galaxies selected from the Muse Wide survey at 0.1 < z < 0.5. High spatial resolution of the MUSE integral-field spectrograph has allowed us to derive reliable spatially resolved Hα and Hβ emission line maps (S/N > 3) and measure Balmer decrement across individual galaxies. At the same time, resolved mass, SFR and dust maps are derived from pixel-by-pixel SED fitting on high resolution multi-band HST/ACS and HST/WFC3 data from the CANDELS survey. By combining these spectroscopic and photometric measurements, we study radial distribution of mass, SFR and dust attenuation across galaxies, and how the integrated mass and SFR of the galaxy is affecting the shape of these profiles.

Co-Authors: Marziye Jafariyazani, Bahram Mobasher, Shoubaneh Hemmati